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Clinical Psychology
Clinical psychology
Clinical psychology
is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.[1][2] Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, and psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists also engage in research, teaching, consultation, forensic testimony, and program development and administration.[3] In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession. The field is generally considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University
University
of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment
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Community Psychology
Community
Community
psychology studies the individuals' contexts within communities and the wider society,[1] and the relationships of the individual to communities and society. Community
Community
psychologists seek to understand the quality of life of individuals within groups, organizations and institutions, communities, and society
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Educational Psychology
Educational psychology
Educational psychology
is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence, cognitive development, affect, motivation, self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan.[1] Educational psychology
Educational psychology
can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines
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Social Psychology
Social psychology
Social psychology
is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.[1] In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences even when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others. They study conditions under which certain behavior, actions, and feelings occur
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Sport Psychology
Sport psychology
Sport psychology
is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology
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Applied Behavior Analysis
Applied behavior analysis
Applied behavior analysis
(ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.[1][2] It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or experimental research).[1] The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions. In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment.[3] Further, the approach often seeks to develop socially acceptable alternatives to aberrant behaviors.[3][4][5] ABA has been brought to bear on a wide range of areas and behavioral problems
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Outline Of Psychology
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology
Psychology
is the science[1] of behavior and mental processes.[2] Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[3][4]Contents1 Branches of psychology1.1 Subdisciplines of psychology1.1.1 Basic psychological science 1.1.2 Other areas by topic 1.1.3 Applied psychology1.2 Psychological schools2 History of psychology 3
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Consumer Behaviour
Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and all the activities associated with the purchase, use and disposal of goods and services, including the consumer's emotional, mental and behavioural responses that precede or follow these activities. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
emerged in the 1940s and 50s as a distinct sub-discipline in the marketing area. Consumer behaviour
Consumer behaviour
is an inter-disciplinary social science that blends elements from psychology, sociology, social anthropology, ethnography, marketing and economics, especially behavioural economics. It examines how emotions, attitudes and preferences affect buying behaviour
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Counseling Psychology
Counseling psychology
Counseling psychology
is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health. Some unifying themes among counseling psychologists include a focus on assets and strengths, person–environment interactions, educational and career development, brief interactions, and a focus on intact personalities.[1] In Australia, counseling psychology programs are accredited by the Australia
Australia
Psychological
Psychological
Society (APS)
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Critical Psychology
Critical psychology
Critical psychology
is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory. Critical psychology
Critical psychology
challenges mainstream psychology and attempts to apply psychological understandings in more progressive ways, often looking towards social change as a means of preventing and treating psychopathology. One of critical psychology's main criticisms of conventional psychology is that it fails to consider or deliberately ignores the way power differences between social classes and groups can affect the mental and physical well-being of individuals or groups of people
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Environmental Psychology
Environmental psychology
Environmental psychology
is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. Since its conception, the field has been committed to the development of a discipline that is both value oriented and problem oriented, prioritizing research aimed at solving complex environmental problems in the pursuit of individual well-being within a larger society.[1] When solving problems involving human-environment interactions, whether global or local, one must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will respond well
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Occupational Health Psychology
Occupational health psychology
Occupational health psychology
(OHP) is an interdisciplinary area of psychology that is concerned with the health and safety of workers.[1][2][3] OHP addresses a number of major topic areas including the impact of occupational stressors on physical and mental health, the impact of involuntary unemployment on physical and mental health, work-family balance, workplace violence and other forms of mistreatment, accidents and safety, and interventions designed to improve/protect worker health.[1][2] OHP emerged from two distinct disciplines within applied psychology, namely, health psychology and industrial and organization
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Human Factors And Ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
Human factors and ergonomics
(commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error, increase productivity, enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest. [1] The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology, sociology, engineering, biomechanics, industrial design, physiology, anthropometry, interaction design, visual design, user experience, and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities
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Forensic Psychology
Forensic psychology
Forensic psychology
is the intersection between psychology and the justice system. It involves understanding fundamental legal principles, particularly with regard to expert witness testimony and the specific content area of concern (e.g., competence to stand trial, child custody and visitation, or workplace discrimination), as well as relevant jurisdictional considerations (e.g., in the United States, the definition of insanity in criminal trials differs from state to state) in order to be able to interact appropriately with judges, attorneys, and other legal professionals
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Political Psychology
Political psychology
Political psychology
is an interdisciplinary academic field dedicated to understanding politics, politicians and political behavior from a psychological perspective. The relationship between politics and psychology is considered bi-directional, with psychology being used as a lens for understanding politics and politics being used as a lens for understanding psychology. As an interdisciplinary field, political psychology borrows from a wide range of other disciplines, including: anthropology, sociology, international relations, economics, philosophy, media, journalism and history. Political psychology
Political psychology
aims to understand interdependent relationships between individuals and contexts that are influenced by beliefs, motivation, perception, cognition, information processing, learning strategies, socialization and attitude formation
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Industrial And Organizational Psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology
(I/O psychology), which is also known as occupational psychology, organizational psychology, and work and organizational psychology, is an applied discipline within psychology. I/O psychology is the science of human behaviour relating to work and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their places of work as well as the individual's work-life more generally.[1] I/O psychologists are trained in the scientist–practitioner model. They contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance, motivation, job satisfaction, and occupational safety and health as well as the overall health and well-being of its employees
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