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Climate Of India
The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult. Based on the Köppen system , India hosts six major climatic subtypes, ranging from arid desert in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions supporting rainforests in the southwest and the island territories. Many regions have starkly different microclimates . The nation has four seasons: winter (December, January and February), summer (March, April and May), a monsoon rainy season (June to September), and a post-monsoon period (October to November). India's geography and geology are climatically pivotal: the Thar Desert in the northwest and the Himalayas in the north work in tandem to effect a culturally and economically important monsoonal regime. As Earth's highest and most massive mountain range, the Himalayas bar the influx of frigid katabatic winds from the icy Tibetan Plateau and northerly Central Asia. Most of North India is thus kept warm or is only mildly chilly or cold during winter; the same thermal dam keeps most regions in India hot in summer. Though the Tropic of Cancer —the boundary between the tropics and subtropics—passes through the middle of India, the bulk of the country can be regarded as climatically tropical
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Tirunelveli
www.tirunelvelicorporation.com www.nellai.tn.nic.in TIRUNELVELI pronunciation (help ·info )), also known as NELLAI and historically (during British rule ) as TINNEVELLY, is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. It is the administrative headquarters of the Tirunelveli District . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is located 700 km (430 mi) southwest of the state capital, Chennai
Chennai
and 58 km (36 mi) away from Thoothukudi . Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
central street The city is located on the west bank of the Thamirabarani River ; its twin city Palayamkottai is on the east bank. Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
is believed to be an ancient settlement; it has been ruled at different times by the Early Pandyas , the Medieval and Later Cholas , the later Pandyas, the Ma\'bar and Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli
sultanates, the Vijayanagar Empire , the Madurai Nayaks
Madurai Nayaks
, Chanda Sahib , the Carnatic kingdom and the British . The Polygar War , involving Palaiyakkarars led by Veerapandiya Kattabomman and forces of the British East India Company, was waged on the city's outskirts from 1797 to 1801
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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu on 14 January 1969 ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes. Symbols EMBLEM Srivilliputhur Andal temple LANGUAGE Tamil SONG " Invocation to Goddess Tamil " DANCE Bharathanattiyam ANIMAL Nilgiri tahr BIRD Emerald dove FLOWER Gloriosa lily TREE Palm tree SPORT Kabaddi TAMIL NADU (Tamil pronunciation: IPA : ; _ pronunciation (help ·info ); TamiḻNāṭu_; literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India . Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala , Karnataka , and Andhra Pradesh
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Windward And Leeward
WINDWARD (pronounced /ˈwɪndwərd/ ) is the direction upwind (toward where the wind is coming from) from the point of reference. LEEWARD (pronounced /ˈliːwərd/ ) is the direction downwind (or downward) from the point of reference. The side of a ship that is towards the leeward is its LEE SIDE. If the vessel is heeling under the pressure of the wind, this will be the "lower side". During the age of sail, the term weather was used as a synonym for windward in some contexts, as in the weather gage . CONTENTS* 1 Nautical and naval * 1.1 Naval warfare * 2 Meteorological significance * 3 See also * 4 References NAUTICAL AND NAVAL Main article: Sailing Windward and leeward directions are important factors (points of sail ) to consider when sailing a sailing ship . Other terms with broadly the same meaning are widely used, particularly upwind and downwind. The windward vessel is normally the more maneuverable vessel. For this reason, rule 12 of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea stipulates that the windward vessel gives way to the leeward vessel. NAVAL WARFAREIn warfare, a square rigged warship would often try to enter battle from the windward direction (or "hold the weather gauge "), thus gaining an important tactical advantage over the opposing warship – the warship to windward could choose when to engage and when to withdraw
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Kerala
KERALA (/ˈkɛrələ/ ), historically known as KERALAM, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast . It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam -speaking regions. Spread over 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi), it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census , Kerala is the thirteenth-largest Indian state by population and is divided into 14 districts with the capital being Thiruvananthapuram . Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE. The Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas . In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for the European colonisation of India. After independence , Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore- Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949
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Rain Shadow
A RAIN SHADOW is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind). The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them. Wind and moist air is drawn by the prevailing winds towards the top of the mountains, where it condenses and precipitates before it crosses the top. The air, without much moisture left, advances behind the mountains creating a drier side called the "rain shadow". CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Regions of notable rain shadow * 2.1 Asia * 2.1.1 Middle East * 2.2 South America * 2.3 North America * 2.4 Europe * 2.5 Africa * 2.6 Oceania * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONThe condition exists because warm moist air rises by orographic lifting to the top of a mountain range. As atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, the air has expanded and adiabatically cooled to the point that the air reaches its adiabatic dew point (which is not the same as its constant pressure dew point commonly reported in weather forecasts). At the adiabatic dew point, moisture condenses onto the mountain and it precipitates on the top and windward sides of the mountain
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Agastya Malai
AGASTHYARKOODAM is a 1,868-metre (6,129 ft)-tall peak within Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary , Kerala in the Western Ghats of South India . The peak lies inside Kerala near the border with Tamil Nadu. This peak is a part of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve which lies on the border between the Indian states of Kerala (in Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram district ) and Tamil Nadu (in Kanyakumari district , Tirunelveli district ). The perennial Thamirabarani River originates from the eastern side of the range and flows into the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. Agasthyarkoodam is a pilgrimage centre for devotees of the Hindu sage Agastya , who is considered to be one of the seven rishis (Saptarishi ) of Hindu Puranas . The Tamil language is considered to be a boon from Agasthya. There is a full-sized statue of Agathiyar at the top of the peak and the devotees can offer pujas themselves. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is among 20 new sites added by UNESCO to its World Network of Biosphere Reserves in March 2016. The International Co-ordinating Council added the new sites during a two-day meeting on March 19, 2016 in Lima, bringing the total number of biosphere reserves to 669 sites in 120 countries, including 16 transboundary sites
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Uttarakhand
UTTARAKHAND (/ˌʊtəˈrɑːkʌnd/ (_ listen )), officially the STATE OF UTTARAKHAND (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya_), formerly known as UTTARANCHAL, is a state in the northern part of India . It is often referred to as the _Devbhumi_ (literally "Land of the Gods") due to many Hindu temples and pilgrimage centres found throughout the state. Uttarakhand is known for its natural beauty of the Himalayas , the Bhabhar and the Terai . On 9 November 2000, Uttarakhand became the 27th state of the Republic of India , being created from the Himalayan and adjoining northwestern districts of Uttar Pradesh . It borders Tibet to the north; the Mahakali Zone of the Far-Western Region , Nepal to the east; and the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh to the south and Himachal Pradesh to the west and north-west as well as Haryana on its south-western corner. The state is divided into two divisions, Garhwal and Kumaon , with a total of 13 districts . The interim capital of Uttarakhand is Dehradun , the largest city of the state, which is a railhead. The High Court of the state is located in Nainital . Archaeological evidence supports the existence of humans in the region since prehistoric times
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Valley Of Flowers National Park
VALLEY OF FLOWERS NATIONAL PARK is an Indian national park , located in West Himalaya , in the state of Uttarakhand and is known for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear , snow leopard , musk deer , brown bear , red fox, and blue sheep . Birds found in the park include Himalayan monal pheasant and other high altitude birds. At 3352 to 3658 meters above sea level, the gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park to the east. Together, they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya . The park stretches over an expanse of 87.50 km2 and it is about 8 km long and 2 km wide. Both parks are encompassed in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (223,674 ha) which is further surrounded by a buffer zone (5,148.57 km2). This Reserve is in the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves since 2004. CONTENTS* 1 High altitude valley * 1.1 Location * 2 History * 2.1 Timeline * 3 Management * 4 Climate * 5 Trek * 6 Vegetation * 7 Fauna * 8 Flora * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links HIGH ALTITUDE VALLEYThe Valley of Flowers is a high-altitude Himalayan valley that has long been acknowledged by renowned mountaineers, botanists, and in literature
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Orographic Lift
OROGRAPHIC LIFT occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain . As the air mass gains altitude it quickly cools down adiabatically , which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create clouds and, under the right conditions, precipitation . CONTENTS* 1 Effects of orographic lifting * 1.1 Precipitation * 1.2 Rain shadowing * 1.3 Leeward winds * 1.4 Associated clouds * 2 See also * 3 References EFFECTS OF OROGRAPHIC LIFTINGPRECIPITATIONPrecipitation induced by orographic lift occurs in many places throughout the world
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Zanskar Range
ZANSKAR or ZANGSKAR (Ladakhi : zangs dkar ཟངས་དཀར་) is a subdistrict or tehsil of the Kargil district , which lies in the eastern half of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir . The administrative centre is Padum . Zanskar, together with the neighbouring region of Ladakh , was briefly a part of the kingdom of Guge in Western Tibet. The ZANSKAR RANGE is a mountain range in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that separates Zanskar from Ladakh . Geologically, the Zanskar Range is part of the Tethys Himalaya , an approximately 100-km-wide synclinorium formed by strongly folded and imbricated, weakly metamorphosed sedimentary series. The average height of the Zanskar Range is about 6,000 m (19,700 ft). Its eastern part is known as Rupshu . It also separates Kinnaur District from Spiti in Himachal Pradesh . The highest peaks of Himachal are in the ZANSKAR RANGE. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Geography * 2.1 Flora and fauna * 2.2 Climate * 3 Population * 4 Religion * 5 Livestock * 6 History * 7 Tourism * 8 Languages * 9 Footnotes * 10 References * 11 External links ETYMOLOGYZanskar appears as “Zangskar” mostly in academic studies in social sciences (anthropology , gender studies ), reflecting the Ladakhi pronunciation, although the Zanskari pronunciation is Zãhar. Older geographical accounts and maps may use the alternate spelling "Zaskar"
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Great Himalayas
The GREAT HIMALAYAS or GREATER HIMALAYAS (Hindi : महान हिमालय or हिमाद्रि) is the highest mountain range of the Himalayan Range System. This range is separated from Trans Himalaya mountain range by the Main Central Thrust Fault , and lies north of it. Entities the range is within include China , India , Nepal , and Tibet . The world's highest peak, Mount Everest , and other "near−highest" peaks are part of the Greater Himalayas range. SEE ALSO * Geology of the Himalaya * Mountain ranges of the Himalayas REFERENCES * ^ Greater Himalayas Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ Hussain, Majid, Geography of India This Indian location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Nepalese location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Chinese location article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Himalayas additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Ypresian
In the geologic timescale the YPRESIAN ( /iːˈprɛsiən/ ) is the oldest age or lowest stratigraphic stage of the Eocene . It spans the time between 56 and 47.8 Ma, is preceded by the Thanetian age (part of the Paleocene ) and is followed by the Eocene Lutetian age. The Ypresian is consistent with the lower Eocene. CONTENTS * 1 Events * 2 Stratigraphic definition * 3 References * 3.1 Notes * 3.2 Literature * 4 External links EVENTSThe Ypresian age begins during the throes of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The Fur Formation in Denmark and the Messel shales in Germany are from this age. STRATIGRAPHIC DEFINITIONThe Ypresian stage was introduced in scientific literature by Belgian geologist André Hubert Dumont in 1850. The Ypresian is named after _Ypres_, the French name of the Belgian (Flemish ) city of Ieper (Ieper). The definitions of the original stage were totally different from the modern ones. The Ypresian shares its name with the Belgian Ieper Group (French: _Group d'Ypres_), which has an Ypresian age. The base of the Ypresian stage is defined at a strong negative anomaly in δ13C values at the PETM
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Climate
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather (category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone (category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate (category) Climate change (category) Global warming (category) · (portal) * v * t * e Part of the nature series WEATHER CALENDAR SEASONS *
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India
INDIA, officially the REPUBLIC OF INDIA (_Bhārat Gaṇarājya_), is a country in South Asia . It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people ), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China , Nepal , and Bhutan to the northeast; and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives . India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia . The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste , emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires ; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia
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Köppen Climate Classification
KöPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the KöPPEN–GEIGER CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM. The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad)
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