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Clean Energy
Sustainable energy
Sustainable energy
is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects. Another common definition of sustainable energy is an energy system that serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.[1] Renewable energy
Renewable energy
is not a synonym of sustainable energy. While renewable energy is defined as one that is naturally replenished on a human timescale, sustainable (often referred to as 'clean') energy is one the use of which will not compromise the system in which it is adopted to the point of not being fit to provide needs in the future
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Greenpower
Greenpower
Greenpower
is the trading name of a charitable organisation, the Greenpower
Greenpower
Education Trust, whose objective[1] is to inspire more young people to become
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United States Environmental Protection Agency
The United States
United States
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt
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Sustainability Science
Sustainability
Sustainability
science has emerged in the 21st century as a new academic discipline.[1] This new field of science was officially introduced with a "Birth Statement" at the World Congress "Challenges of a Changing Earth 2001" in Amsterdam organized by the International Council for Science (ICSU), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change[2] and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). The field reflects a desire to give the generalities and broad-based approach of “sustainability” a stronger analytic and scientific underpinning as it "brings together scholarship and practice, global and local perspectives from north and south, and disciplines across the natural and social sciences, engineering, and medicine".[3] Ecologist William C
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Sustainability
In ecology, sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to remain diverse and productive indefinitely. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.[1] Sustainability science
Sustainability science
is the study of sustainable development and environmental science.[2] Sustainability
Sustainability
can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal.[3] An ideal is by definition unattainable in a given time and space
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Wind Energy
Wind
Wind
power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electric power. Wind
Wind
power, as an alternative to burning fossil fuels, is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation, consumes no water, and uses little land.[2] The net effects on the environment are far less problematic than those of nonrenewable power sources. Wind
Wind
farms consist of many individual wind turbines, which are connected to the electric power transmission network. Onshore wind is an inexpensive source of electric power, competitive with or in many places cheaper than coal or gas plants.[3][4][5] Offshore wind is steadier and stronger than on land, and offshore farms have less visual impact, but construction and maintenance costs are considerably higher
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Geothermal Energy
Geothermal energy
Geothermal energy
is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy
Thermal energy
is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials (in currently uncertain[1] but possibly roughly equal[2] proportions). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface
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Bioenergy
Bioenergy
Bioenergy
is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources. Biomass
Biomass
is any organic material which has stored sunlight in the form of chemical energy. As a fuel it may include wood, wood waste, straw, manure, sugarcane, and many other by-products from a variety of agricultural processes. By 2010, there was 35 GW (47,000,000 hp) of globally installed bioenergy capacity for electricity generation, of which 7 GW (9,400,000 hp) was in the United States.[1] In its most narrow sense it is a synonym to biofuel, which is fuel derived from biological sources. In its broader sense it includes biomass, the biological material used as a biofuel, as well as the social, economic, scientific and technical fields associated with using biological sources for energy
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Energy Transition
Energy transition
Energy transition
is generally defined as a long-term structural change in energy systems.[1] These have occurred in the past, and still occur worldwide. Historic energy transitions are most broadly described by Vaclav Smil.[2] Contemporary energy transitions differ in terms of motivation and objectives, drivers and governance. The layout of the world’s energy systems have changed significantly over time. Until the 1950s, the economic mechanism behind energy systems was local rather than global.[3] As development progressed, different national systems became more and more integrated becoming the large, international systems seen today
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100% Renewable Energy
The endeavor to use 100% renewable energy
100% renewable energy
for electricity, heating and cooling, and transport is motivated by global warming, pollution and other environmental issues, as well as economic and energy security concerns. Shifting the total global primary energy supply to renewable sources requires a transition of the energy system. In 2013 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
said that there are few fundamental technological limits to integrating a portfolio of renewable energy technologies to meet most of total global energy demand
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Alternative Energy
Alternative energy
Alternative energy
is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels, such as its high carbon dioxide emissions, an important factor in global warming. Marine energy, hydroelectric, wind, geothermal and solar power are all alternative sources of energy. The nature of what constitutes an alternative energy source has changed considerably over time, as have controversies regarding energy use
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Biogas
Biogas
Biogas
typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas
Biogas
can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas
Biogas
is a renewable energy source. Biogas
Biogas
can be produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.[1] Biogas
Biogas
is primarily methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking
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Organizing Principle
An organizing principle is a core assumption from which everything else by proximity can derive a classification or a value. It is like a central reference point that allows all other objects to be located, often used in a conceptual framework. Having an organizing principle might help one simplify and get a handle on a particularly complicated domain or phenomenon. On the other hand, it might create a deceptive prism that colors one's judgment. Examples[edit]In a Brookings Institution article, James Steinberg
James Steinberg
describes how counter-terrorism has become the organizing principle of U.S
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Biomass
Biomass
Biomass
is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, but has been classed as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks, because plant stocks can be replaced with new growth.[1] It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation without wasting existing generating plant and infrastructure. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass.[2] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical
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Hydroelectric
Hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity
is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015 hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity,[1] and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower
Hydropower
is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China
China
is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh
TWh
of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S
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Greenhouse Gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.[1] The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone
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