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Clean Air Act (United States)
The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law
United States federal law
designed to control air pollution on a national level.[1] It is one of the United States' first and most influential modern environmental laws, and one of the most comprehensive air quality laws in the world.[2][3] As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments.[4] Its implementing regulations are codified at 40 C.F.R. Subchapter C, Parts 50-97. The 1955 Air Pollution Control Act
Air Pollution Control Act
was the first U.S
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Acronym
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO
NATO
or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There are no universal standards of the multiple names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century
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Cadmium
Cadmium
Cadmium
is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, namely zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its compounds, and like mercury, it has a lower melting point than the transition metals in groups 3 through 11. Cadmium
Cadmium
and its congeners in group 12 are often not considered transition metals, in that they do not have partly filled d or f electron shells in the elemental or common oxidation states. The average concentration of cadmium in Earth's crust
Earth's crust
is between 0.1 and 0.5 parts per million (ppm). It was discovered in 1817 simultaneously by Stromeyer and Hermann, both in Germany, as an impurity in zinc carbonate. Cadmium
Cadmium
occurs as a minor component in most zinc ores and is a byproduct of zinc production
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Reid Vapor Pressure
Reid vapor pressure (RVP) is a common measure of the volatility of gasoline. It is defined as the absolute vapor pressure exerted by a liquid at 37.8 °C (100 °F) as determined by the test method ASTM-D-323. The test method measures the vapor pressure of gasoline, volatile crude oil, and other volatile petroleum products, except for liquefied petroleum gases. RVP is stated in kilopascals and represents a relative pressure to the atmospheric pressure because ASTM-D-323 measures the gauge pressure of the sample in a non-evacuated chamber. All values are in SI units and are regarded as standards. Imperial units are for information only. The matter of vapor pressure is important relating to the function and operation of gasoline-powered, especially carbureted, vehicles. High levels of vaporization are desirable for winter starting and operation and lower levels are desirable in avoiding vapor lock during summer heat
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Environmental Health
Environmental health
Environmental health
is the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health. Environmental health
Environmental health
is focused on the natural and built environments for the benefit of human health
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Acetaldehyde
0.7904–0.7928 g·cm−3 (10 °C)[4]Melting point −123.37 °C (−190.07 °F; 149.78 K)Boiling point 20.2 °C (68.4 °F; 293.3 K) Solubility
Solubility
in watermiscibleSolubility miscible with ethanol, ether, benzene, toluene, xylene, turpentine, acetone slightly soluble in chloroformlog P -0.34Vapor pressure 740 mmHg (20 °C)[5]Acidity (pKa) 13.57 [6][7]
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Benzene
Benzene
Benzene
is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. Benzene
Benzene
is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bond between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the second [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene). It is sometimes abbreviated Ph–H. Benzene
Benzene
is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is responsible for the aroma around petrol stations. It is used primarily as a precursor to the manufacture of chemicals with more complex structure, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, of which billions of kilograms are produced
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Chloroform
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE. It is also a precursor to various refrigerants.[4] It is one of the four chloromethanes and a trihalomethane.Contents1 Structure 2 Natural occurrence 3 History 4 Production4.1 Deuterochloroform 4.2 Inadvertent formation of chloroform5 Uses5.1 Solvent 5.2 Reagent 5.3 Anesthetic 5.4 Criminal use6 Safety6.1 Exposure 6.2 Pharmacology 6.3 Conversion to phosgene 6.4 Regulation7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] The molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry. Natural occurrence[edit] The total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 7005660000000000000♠660000 tonnes per year,[5] and about 90% of emissions are natural in origin
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Phenol
29.1 (in acetonitrile)[3]UV-vis (λmax) 270.75 nm[4]Dipole moment1.224 DPharmacologyATC codeC05BB05 (WHO) D08AE03 (WHO), N01BX03 (WHO), R02AA19 (WHO)HazardsSafety data sheet [1]GHS pictograms [5]GHS hazard statementsH301, H311, H314, H331, H341, H373[5]GHS precautionary statementsP261, P280, P301+310, P305+351+338, P310[5]NFPA 7042 3 0Flash point 79 °C (174 °F; 352 K)Explosive limits 1.8–8.6%[2]Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):LD50 (median dose)317 mg/kg (rat, oral) 270 mg/kg (mouse, oral)[6]LDLo (lowest published)420 mg/kg (rabbit, oral) 500 mg/kg (dog, oral) 80 mg/kg (cat, oral)[6]LC50 (median concentration)19 ppm (mammal) 81 ppm (rat) 69 ppm (mouse)[6]US health exposure limits (NIOSH):PEL (Permissible)TWA 5 ppm (19 mg/m3) [skin][2]REL (Recommended)TWA 5 ppm (1
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Selenium
Selenium
Selenium
is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34. It is a nonmetal with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. Selenium
Selenium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σελήνη (selḗnē) "Moon") was discovered in 1817 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who noted the similarity of the new element to the previously discovered tellurium (named for the Earth). Selenium
Selenium
is found in metal sulfide ores, where it partially replaces the sulfur. Commercially, selenium is produced as a byproduct in the refining of these ores, most often during production. Minerals that are pure selenide or selenate compounds are known but rare
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Arsenic
Arsenic
Arsenic
is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic
Arsenic
occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic
Arsenic
is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form is important to industry. The primary use of metallic arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic
Arsenic
is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon. Arsenic
Arsenic
and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides
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Major Stationary Source
A major stationary source is a source that emits more than a certain amount of a pollutant as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
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Carbon Monoxide
Carbon
Carbon
monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals (both invertebrate and vertebrate, including humans) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions. In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone. Carbon
Carbon
monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond.[5] It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen
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Volatile Organic Compounds
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air, a trait known as volatility. For example, formaldehyde, which evaporates from paint and releases from materials like quartz, has a boiling point of only –19 °C (–2 °F). VOCs are numerous, varied, and ubiquitous. They include both human-made and naturally occurring chemical compounds. Most scents or odors are of VOCs. VOCs play an important role in communication between plants,[1] and messages from plants to animals. Some VOCs are dangerous to human health or cause harm to the environment. Anthropogenic VOCs are regulated by law, especially indoors, where concentrations are the highest
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams
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