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Claude Debussy
Achille- Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
(French: [aʃil klod dəbysi];[1] 22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918)[2] was a French composer
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Ludwig Van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
(/ˈlʊdvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪˌtoʊvən/ ( listen), /ˈbeɪtˌhoʊvən/; German: [ˈluːtvɪç fan ˈbeːtˌhoˑfn̩] ( listen); baptised 17 December 1770[1] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Classical music, he remains one of the most famous and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 32 piano sonatas, 16 string quartets, his great Mass the Missa solemnis, and one opera, Fidelio. Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven
Johann van Beethoven
and by composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe
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Gaetano Donizetti
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (Italian: [doˈmeːniko ɡaeˈtaːno maˈriːa donidˈdzetti] ( listen); 29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini
Rossini
and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.[1] Donizetti was born in Bergamo
Bergamo
in Lombardy. Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer Simon Mayr[2] who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint
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Movement (music)
A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form. While individual or selected movements from a composition are sometimes performed separately, a performance of the complete work requires all the movements to be performed in succession. A movement is a section, "a major structural unit perceived as the result of the coincidence of relatively large numbers of structural phenomena."[1]A unit of a larger work that may stand by itself as a complete composition. Such divisions are usually self-contained. Most often the sequence of movements is arranged fast-slow-fast or in some other order that provides contrast. — Benward & Saker (2009), Music in Theory and Practice: Volume II[2]Sources[edit]^ Spencer, Peter; Peter M. Temko (1994). A Practical Approach to the Study of Form in Music. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780881338065. OCLC 31792064
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Composer
A composer ( Latin
Latin
compōnō; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any musical music genre, including, for example, classical music, musical theatre, blues, folk music, jazz, and popular music
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Georges Bizet
Georges Bizet
Georges Bizet
(French: [ʒɔʁʒ bizɛ]; 25 October 1838 – 3 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire. During a brilliant student career at the Conservatoire de Paris, Bizet won many prizes, including the prestigious Prix de Rome
Prix de Rome
in 1857. He was recognised as an outstanding pianist, though he chose not to capitalise on this skill and rarely performed in public. Returning to Paris after almost three years in Italy, he found that the main Parisian opera theatres preferred the established classical repertoire to the works of newcomers
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Ballade No. 2 (Chopin)
Frédéric Chopin's four ballades are one-movement pieces for solo piano, composed between 1831 and 1842. They are considered to be some of the most challenging pieces in the standard piano repertoire.[1][2] The term ballade was used by Chopin in the sense of a balletic interlude or dance-piece, equivalent to the old Italian ballata, but the term may also have connotations of the medieval heroic ballad, a narrative minstrel-song, often of a fantastical character. There are dramatic and dance-like elements in Chopin's use of the genre, and he may be said to be a pioneer of the ballade as an abstract musical form
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Albert Lavignac
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Lavignac
Lavignac
(Occitan: Lavinhac) is a commune in the Haute-Vienne department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine <
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Solfège
In music, solfège (/ˈsɒlfɛʒ/,[1] also US: /sɒlˈfɛʒ/, French: [sɔl.fɛʒ]) or solfeggio (/sɒlˈfɛdʒioʊ/, Italian: [solˈfeddʒo]), also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music. Solfège
Solfège
is a form of solmization, and though the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, the systems used in other music cultures such as swara, durar mufaṣṣalāt and Jianpu
Jianpu
are discussed in their respective articles. Syllables are assigned to the notes of the scale and enable the musician to audiate, or mentally hear, the pitches of a piece of music which he or she is seeing for the first time and then to sing them aloud. Through the Renaissance (and much later in some shapenote publications) various interlocking 4, 5 and 6-note systems were employed to cover the octave
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Piano Concerto No. 1 (Chopin)
The Piano
Piano
Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11, is a piano concerto written by Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
in 1830, when he was only twenty years old. It was first performed on 11 October of that year, in Warsaw, with the composer as soloist, during one of his “farewell” concerts before leaving Poland.Chopin, circa 1849It was the first of Chopin's two piano concertos to be published, and was therefore given the designation of Piano
Piano
Concerto “No. 1” at the time of publication, even though it was actually written immediately after the premiere of what was later published as Piano Concerto No. 2. The concerto is scored for solo piano, pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, tenor trombone, timpani and strings
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Villa Medici
The Villa
Villa
Medici (Italian pronunciation: [ˌvilːa ˈmɛːditʃi]) is a Mannerist[1] villa and an architectural complex with a garden contiguous with the larger Borghese gardens, on the Pincian Hill
Pincian Hill
next to Trinità dei Monti
Trinità dei Monti
in Rome, Italy. The Villa Medici, founded by Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
and now property of the French State[citation needed], has housed the French Academy in Rome
Rome
since 1803
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Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann[1] (/ˈʃuːmɑːn/;[2] 8 June 1810 – 29 July 1856) was a German composer and an influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. He had been assured by his teacher Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing. Schumann's published compositions were written exclusively for the piano until 1840; he later composed works for piano and orchestra; many Lieder (songs for voice and piano); four symphonies; one opera; and other orchestral, choral, and chamber works. Works such as Carnaval, Symphonic Studies, Kinderszenen, Kreisleriana, and the Fantasie in C are among his most famous
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French Academy In Rome
The French Academy in Rome
Rome
(French: Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio
Pincio
(Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.Contents1 History 2 List of directors 3 See also 4 Notes 5 External linksHistory[edit] The Academy was founded at the Palazzo Capranica
Palazzo Capranica
in 1666 by Louis XIV under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
and Gian Lorenzo Bernini
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Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ˈverdi]; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto
Busseto
to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician
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Franco-Prussian War
Baden  Bavaria Württemberg Hesse-Darmstadt French Empirea German Empired French RepublicbCommanders and leaders William I Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke Crown Prince Friedrich Prince Friedrich Karl Karl F. von Steinmetz Albrecht von Roon Napoleon
Napoleon
III (POW) F. A
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Cannes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Cannes
Cannes
(/ˈkæn, ˈkɑːn/; French: [kan]; Occitan: Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera. It is a commune located in the Alpes-Maritimes
Alpes-Maritimes
department, and host city of the annual Cannes
Cannes
Film Festival, Midem, and Cannes
Cannes
Lions International Festival of Creativity. The city is known for its association with the rich and famous, its luxury hotels and restaurants, and for several conferences
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