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Classified Information
CLASSIFIED INFORMATION is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people, and mishandling can incur criminal penalties and loss of respect. A formal security clearance is often required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process usually requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information assets are typically marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is often based on an impact assessment; governments often have their own set of rules which include the levels, rules on determining the level for an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level. This often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada
O Canada
"------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra
Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney
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Brazil
Coordinates : 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52 Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * Ordem e Progresso (Portuguese) * (English: "Order and Progress") ANTHEM: * Hino Nacional Brasileiro * (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")* ------------------------- * FLAG ANTHEM: * Hino à Bandeira Nacional * (English: "National Flag Anthem")* NATIONAL SEAL * Selo Nacional do Brasil * National Seal of Brazil * CAPITAL <
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Queen's Privy Council For Canada
Provincial and territorial executive councils Premiers Legislative ( Queen-in-Parliament ) Federal parliament Senate Speaker of the Senate Government Leader in the Senate Opposition Leader in the Senate Senate divisions House of Commons Speaker of the house Government Leader in the house Opposition Leader in the house Her Majesty\'s Loyal Opposition Leader of the Opposition Shadow cabinet Provincial and territorial parliaments Judicial (Queen-on-the-Bench ) Court system Supreme court Federal chief justice ( Beverley McLachlin
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Cipher
In cryptography , a CIPHER (or CYPHER) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption —a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. An alternative, less common term is encipherment. To encipher or encode is to convert information into cipher or code. In common parlance, "cipher" is synonymous with "code ", as they are both a set of steps that encrypt a message; however, the concepts are distinct in cryptography, especially classical cryptography . Codes generally substitute different length strings of characters in the output, while ciphers generally substitute the same number of characters as are input. There are exceptions and some cipher systems may use slightly more, or fewer, characters when output versus the number that were input
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Fialka
In cryptography , FIALKA (M-125) is the name of a Cold War
Cold War
-era Soviet cipher machine. A rotor machine , the device uses 10 rotors, each with 30 contacts along with mechanical pins to control stepping. It also makes use of a punched card mechanism. Fialka
Fialka
means "violet " in Russian . Information regarding the machine was quite scarce until c. 2005 because the device had been kept secret. Fialka
Fialka
contains a five-level paper tape reader on the right hand side at the front of the machine, and a paper tape punch and tape printing mechanism on top. The punched-card input for keying the machine is located on the left hand side. The Fialka
Fialka
requires 24 volt DC power and comes with a separate power supply that accepts power at 100 to 250 VAC, 50–400 Hz
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European Commission
The EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC) is an institution of the European Union , responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU. Commissioners swear an oath at the European Court of Justice
European Court of Justice
in Luxembourg, pledging to respect the treaties and to be completely independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. The Commission operates as a cabinet government , with 28 members of the Commission (informally known as "commissioners"). There is one member per member state , but members are bound by their oath of office to represent the general interest of the EU as a whole rather than their home state
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Organisation For Joint Armament Cooperation
The ORGANISATION FOR JOINT ARMAMENT COOPERATION (French: Organisation conjointe de coopération en matière d'armement;OCCAR) is a European intergovernmental organisation which facilitates and manages collaborative armament programmes through their lifecycle between the nations of Belgium
Belgium
, France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Italy
Italy
, Spain
Spain
, and the United Kingdom . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Structure * 3 Current programmes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYOCCAR was established on 12 November 1996 by the Defence Ministers of France
France
, Germany
Germany
, Italy
Italy
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Legal status was not achieved, however, until January 2001 when the parliaments of the four founding nations ratified the OCCAR Convention
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East Germany
EAST GERMANY, officially the GERMAN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC (GDR; German : Deutsche Demokratische Republik pronounced , DDR), was a socialist state in central -western Europe
Europe
, during the Cold War
Cold War
period. From 1949 to 1990, it administered the region of Germany
Germany
that was occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II
World War II
—the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line . The Soviet zone surrounded West Berlin , but did not include it; as a result, West Berlin remained outside the jurisdiction of the GDR. The German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
was established in the Soviet Zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones
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Wuhan
WUHAN ( ( listen )) is the capital of Hubei
Hubei
province, China, and is the most populous city in Central China . It lies in the eastern Jianghan Plain at the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze
Yangtze
and Han rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of three cities, Wuchang , Hankou
Hankou
, and Hanyang , Wuhan
Wuhan
is known as "Jiusheng Tongqu (the nine provinces' leading thoroughfare)"; it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city and connecting to other major cities. Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan
Wuhan
was sometimes referred to as "the Chicago
Chicago
of China" by foreign sources
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Criminal Law
CRIMINAL LAW is the body of law that relates to crime . It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people. Most criminal law is established by statute, which is to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. It includes the punishment of people who violate these laws. Criminal law
Criminal law
varies according to jurisdiction , and differs from civil law , where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation than on punishment . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Objectives of criminal law * 3 Selected criminal laws * 3.1 Elements * 3.2 Actus reus * 3.3 Mens rea * 3.4 Strict liability * 3.5 Fatal offenses * 3.6 Personal offenses * 3.7 Property offenses * 3.8 Participatory offenses * 3.9 Mala in se v
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ ( listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island
North Island
(or Te Ika-a-Māui), and the South Island
South Island
(or Te Waipounamu)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand
New Zealand
is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia
Australia
across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand
New Zealand
developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life