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Classified Information
CLASSIFIED INFORMATION is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people, and mishandling can incur criminal penalties and loss of respect. A formal security clearance is often required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process usually requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other information assets are typically marked with one of several (hierarchical) levels of sensitivity—e.g. restricted, confidential, secret and top secret. The choice of level is often based on an impact assessment; governments often have their own set of rules which include the levels, rules on determining the level for an information asset, and rules on how to protect information classified at each level. This often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although "classified information" refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, it has also developed a sense synonymous with "censored " in US English . A distinction is often made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as "commercial in confidence". Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected
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Top Secret (other)
TOP SECRET generally refers to the highest acknowledged level of classified information. TOP SECRET may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Film and television * 2 Games and gaming * 3 Music * 4 Other uses * 5 See also FILM AND TELEVISION * Top Secret (1952 film) , a British comedy directed by Mario Zampi * Top Secret (1998 film) , a 1998 French film * Top Secret!
Top Secret!
, a 1984 American comedy starring Val Kilmer * "Top Secret" (House) , an episode of House * Top Secret (TV series) , a 1961 British series starring William Franklyn * The Billionaire , known in Thailand as Top Secret: Wai Roon Pan LanGAMES AND GAMING * Top Secret (arcade game) or Bionic Commando, a 1987 action platform game * Top Secret (role-playing game) , a 1980 espionage-themed role-playing game * Top Secret, an experimental multiplayer online game project from Acclaim Games
Acclaim Games
MUSIC * Top Secret Drum Corps , a Swiss precision drum corps * Top Secret (EP) , an EP by Jun Hyoseong * Top Secret, an album by Captain Jack Songs * "Top Secret" (song) , a song by F.T
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Unclassified (Robert Randolph And The Family Band Album)
UNCLASSIFIED is the first studio album by Robert Randolph and the Family Band . Popmatters magazine reviewed the album favourably, concluding that "the one quality that holds it all together is joyousness". It described the opening track, 'Going in the Right Direction', as "a gospel-tinged, two steppin’, inspirational, tune that simply burns". The single taken from the album, 'Soul Refreshing', was described as "a light-hearted, groovy, feel good-tune in the vein of Al Green
Al Green
or perhaps even James Taylor ". CONTENTS * 1 Track listing * 2 Personnel * 3 Production * 4 References TRACK LISTINGAll songs written by Robert Randolph, except for where noted
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Unclassified (Adult Swim Album)
{UNCLASSIFIED} is a compilation album released by Adult Swim . The album was released as a free download on their website. It consists of rare and/or unreleased material from various artists. TRACK LISTING * Ikonika – "World on Mute" * xxxy – "Kerpow" * Untold – "Peaky" * Geiom – "Pure Bristle" * Ginz – "Chrome" * Lukid – "Running From The Demons" * Geeneus ft Riko/Wiley/Breeze – "Knife & Gun" (Dusk "> * ^ http://www.discogs.com/Various-Unclassified/release/3135443 * ^ http://www.adultswim.com/promos/201109_unclassified/ * v * t * e Williams Street * Mike Lazzo * Keith Crofford
Keith Crofford
CHANNELS* Adult Swim * programming * Toonami * programming * Jetstream FILMS * Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters (2007) RECORD LABEL ALBUMS * Cerebral Ballzy
Cerebral Ballzy
( Cerebral Ballzy
Cerebral Ballzy
) * The Dethalbum
The Dethalbum
, Dethalbum II , Dethalbum III ( Dethklok
Dethklok
) * Have Yourself a Meaty Little Christmas * R.A.P. Music ( Killer Mike
Killer Mike
) * The Music of J. G
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U.S. National Security Agency
The NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence
Director of National Intelligence
. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and processing of information and data for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence purposes, specializing in a discipline known as signals intelligence (SIGINT). The NSA is also tasked with the protection of U.S. communications networks and information systems. The NSA relies on a variety of measures to accomplish its mission, the majority of which are clandestine . Originating as a unit to decipher coded communications in World War II , it was officially formed as the NSA by President Harry S. Truman in 1952. Since then, it has become one of the largest U.S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget. . The NSA currently conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end. The NSA has also been alleged to have been behind such attack software as Stuxnet
Stuxnet
, which severely damaged Iran's nuclear program
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USS Liberty Incident
The USS LIBERTY INCIDENT was an attack on a United States
United States
Navy technical research ship , USS Liberty , by Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force
jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats , on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
. The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members (naval officers, seamen, two marines, and one civilian), wounded 171 crew members, and severely damaged the ship. At the time, the ship was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula , about 25.5 nmi (29.3 mi; 47.2 km) northwest from the Egyptian city of Arish
Arish
. Israel
Israel
apologized for the attack, saying that the USS Liberty had been attacked in error after being mistaken for an Egyptian ship. Both the Israeli and U.S. governments conducted inquiries and issued reports that concluded the attack was a mistake due to Israeli confusion about the ship's identity, though others, including survivors of the attack, have rejected these conclusions and maintain that the attack was deliberate. In May 1968, the Israeli government paid US$3.32 million (equivalent to US$22.9 million in 2016) to the U.S. government in compensation to the families of the 34 men killed in the attack. In March 1969, Israel paid a further $3.57 million ($23.3 million in 2016) to the men who had been wounded
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Sensitive Information
INFORMATION SENSITIVITY is the control of access to information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others. Loss, misuse, modification, or unauthorized access to sensitive information can adversely affect the privacy or welfare of an individual, trade secrets of a business or even the security and international relations of a nation depending on the level of sensitivity and nature of the information. CONTENTS* 1 Non-sensitive information * 1.1 Public information * 1.2 Routine business information * 2 Types of sensitive information * 2.1 Confidential business information * 2.2 Classified * 3 Legal protection from unauthorised disclosure * 3.1 Personal and private information * 3.2 Confidential business information * 3.3 Classified information
Classified information
* 4 Digital sensitive information * 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 Notes NON-SENSITIVE INFORMATIONPUBLIC INFORMATIONThis refers to information that is already a matter of public record or knowledge. With regard to government and private organizations, access to or release of such information may be requested by any member of the public, and there are often formal processes laid out for how to do so. The accessibility of government-held public records is an important part of government transparency, accountability to its citizens, and the values of democracy
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Law
LAW is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior . Law as a system helps regulate and ensure that a community show respect, and equality amongst themselves. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes , by the executive through decrees and regulations , or established by judges through precedent , normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts , including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution , written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics , economics , history and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions (including Catholic canon law and socialist law ), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law
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Security Clearance
A SECURITY CLEARANCE is a status granted to individuals allowing them access to classified information (state or organizational secrets ) or to restricted areas , after completion of a thorough background check . The term "security clearance" is also sometimes used in private organizations that have a formal process to vet employees for access to sensitive information. A clearance by itself is normally not sufficient to gain access; the organization must also determine that the cleared individual needs to know specific information. No one is supposed to be granted automatic access to classified information solely because of rank, position, or a security clearance
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Categorization
CATEGORIZATION is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood. Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference , decision making and in all kinds of environmental interaction. It is indicated that categorization plays a major role in computer programming . There are many categorization theories and techniques. In a broader historical view, however, three general approaches to categorization may be identified: * Classical categorization * Conceptual clustering * Prototype theoryCONTENTS * 1 The classical view * 2 Conceptual clustering * 3 Prototype theory * 4 Miscategorization * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links THE CLASSICAL VIEW Main article: Categories (Aristotle) CLASSICAL CATEGORIZATION first appears in the context of Western Philosophy in the work of Plato , who, in his Statesman dialogue, introduces the approach of grouping objects based on their similar properties . This approach was further explored and systematized by Aristotle in his Categories treatise, where he analyzes the differences between classes and objects
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Censorship
CENSORSHIP is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information that may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, politically incorrect or inconvenient as determined by governments, media outlets, authorities or other groups or institutions. Governments, private organizations and individuals may engage in censorship. When an individual such as an author or other creator engages in censorship of their own works or speech, it is referred to as _self-censorship _. Censorship could be direct or indirect, in which case it is referred to as _soft censorship_. It occurs in a variety of different media, including speech, books, music, films, and other arts, the press, radio, television, and the Internet for a variety of claimed reasons including national security , to control obscenity , child pornography , and hate speech , to protect children or other vulnerable groups, to promote or restrict political or religious views, and to prevent slander and libel . Direct censorship may or may not be legal, depending on the type, location, and content. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law, but none of these protections are absolute and frequently a claim of necessity to balance conflicting rights is made, in order to determine what could and could not be censored. There are no laws against self-censorship
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American English
AMERICAN ENGLISH (AME, AE, AMENG, USENG, EN-US ), sometimes called UNITED STATES ENGLISH or U.S. ENGLISH, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States . English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and is the common language used by the federal government, considered the _de facto _ language of the country because of its widespread use. English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 state governments. As an example, while both Spanish and English have equivalent status in the local courts of Puerto Rico , under federal law, English is the official language for any matters being referred to the United States district court for the territory. The use of English in the United States is a result of British colonization of the Americas . The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrived in North America during the 17th century, followed by further migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, American English has developed into new dialects, in some cases under the influence of West African and Native American languages , German , Dutch , Irish , Spanish , and other languages of successive waves of immigrants to the United States
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Corporation
A CORPORATION is a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person ) and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter (i.e. by an _ad hoc_ act granted by a monarch or passed by a parliament or legislature). Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration . Corporations come in many different types but are usually divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they make profit or not. Where local law distinguishes corporations by ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, and owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders". Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations; those who are considered the owners of the corporation are those who have obtained membership in the corporation, and are referred to as a "member" of the corporation. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well
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Trade Secret
A TRADE SECRET is a formula , practice , process , design , instrument , pattern , commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. In some jurisdictions , such secrets are referred to as "confidential information" but are generally not referred to as "classified information " in the United States, since that refers to government secrets protected by a different set of laws and practices. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Value * 3 Protection * 4 Misappropriation * 5 History * 5.1 Roman law * 5.2 19th century * 5.3 Current regulation * 5.3.1 European Union * 5.3.2 Commonwealth jurisdictions * 5.3.3 United States * 6 Comparison to other types of intellectual property law * 6.1 Comparison with trademarks * 6.2 Comparison with patents * 7 Criticism * 8 Cases * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 Further reading * 12 External links DEFINITIONThe precise language by which a trade secret is defined varies by jurisdiction (as do the particular types of information that are subject to trade secret protection)
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Personal Privacy
PRIVACY is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. The boundaries and content of what is considered private differ among cultures and individuals, but share common themes. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special or sensitive to them. The domain of privacy partially overlaps security (confidentiality), which can include the concepts of appropriate use, as well as protection of information. Privacy
Privacy
may also take the form of bodily integrity . The right not to be subjected to unsanctioned invasion of privacy by the government , corporations or individuals is part of many countries' privacy laws , and in some cases, constitutions . Almost all countries have laws which in some way limit privacy. An example of this would be law concerning taxation , which normally require the sharing of information about personal income or earnings . In some countries individual privacy may conflict with freedom of speech laws and some laws may require public disclosure of information which would be considered private in other countries and cultures
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Freedom Of Information Legislation
FREEDOM OF INFORMATION LAWS (FOI LAWS) allow access by the general public to data held by national governments. The emergence of freedom of information legislation was a response to increasing dissatisfaction with the secrecy surrounding government policy development and decision making. They establish a "right-to-know" legal process by which requests may be made for government-held information, to be received freely or at minimal cost, barring standard exceptions. Also variously referred to as OPEN RECORDS, or SUNSHINE LAWS (in the United States
United States
), governments are typically bound by a duty to publish and promote openness. In many countries there are constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information, but these are usually unused if specific support legislation does not exist
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