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Classicism
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus
Discobolus
Sir Kenneth Clark
Sir Kenneth Clark
observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are simply objecting to the classicism of classic art
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Columns
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member. The term column applies especially to a large round support (the shaft of the column) with a capital and a base or pedestal[1] which is made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is typically called a post, and supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are usually called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are often termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that also has certain proportional and decorative features
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Formalism (philosophy)
The term formalism describes an emphasis on form over content or meaning in the arts, literature, or philosophy. A practitioner of formalism is called a formalist. A formalist, with respect to some discipline, holds that there is no transcendent meaning to that discipline other than the literal content created by a practitioner. For example, formalists within mathematics claim that mathematics is no more than the symbols written down by the mathematician, which is based on logic and a few elementary rules alone. This is as opposed to non-formalists, within that field, who hold that there are some things inherently true, and are not, necessarily, dependent on the symbols within mathematics so much as a greater truth. Formalists within a discipline are completely concerned with "the rules of the game," as there is no other external truth that can be achieved beyond those given rules
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Society
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification or dominance patterns in subgroups. Insofar as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society
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Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
(/ʒɑːkˈlwi ˈdɑːviːd/; French: [ʒa.klwi da.vid]; 30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era. In the 1780s his cerebral brand of history painting marked a change in taste away from Rococo
Rococo
frivolity toward a classical austerity and severity, heightened feeling[1] harmonizing with the moral climate of the final years of the Ancien Régime. David later became an active supporter of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and friend of Maximilien Robespierre
Maximilien Robespierre
(1758–1794), and was effectively a dictator of the arts under the French Republic. Imprisoned after Robespierre's fall from power, he aligned himself with yet another political regime upon his release: that of Napoleon, The First Consul of France
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Byzantium
Byzantium
Byzantium
or Byzantion
Byzantion
(/bɪˈzæntiəm, bɪˈzænʃəm/; Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul. Byzantium
Byzantium
was colonized by the Greeks
Greeks
from Megara
Megara
in c. 657 BC.Contents1 Name 2 History2.1 Emblem3 Notable people 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksName[edit] The etymology of Byzantion
Byzantion
is unknown
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Christendom
Christendom[1][2][page needed] has several meanings. In one contemporary sense, as used in a secular or Protestant context, it may refer to the " Christian
Christian
world": worldwide community of Christians,[citation needed] the adherents of Christianity,[citation needed] the Christian-majority countries,[citation needed] the countries in which Christianity
Christianity
dominates[3] or prevails,[1] or, in the Catholic
Catholic
sense of the word, the nations in which Catholic Christianity
Christianity
is the established religion. Since the spread of Christianity
Christianity
from the Levant
Levant
to Europe
Europe
and North Africa during the early Roman Empire, Christendom
Christendom
has been divided in the pre-existing Greek East and Latin West
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Constantine I
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus;[2] Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD[1] – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles,[3] was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD. He was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and Galerius
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Empiricism
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.[1] It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and skepticism. Empiricism
Empiricism
emphasizes the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions;[2] empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.[3] Empiricism
Empiricism
in the philosophy of science emphasizes evidence, especially as discovered in experiments
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Polytheism
Polytheism
Polytheism
(from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendental absolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies).[1] Most of the polytheistic deities of ancient religions, with the notable exceptions of the Ancient Egyptian[2] and Hindu deities, were conceived as having physical bodies. Polytheism
Polytheism
is a type of theism
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Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒan loˈrɛntso berˈniːni]; also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.[1] While a major figure in the world of architecture, he was, also and even more prominently, the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style
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Paganism
Paganism
Paganism
is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christianity
Christianity
for populations of the Roman E
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Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
(/oʊˈlɪmpəs, ə-/;[3] Greek: Όλυμπος Olympos, for Modern Greek
Modern Greek
also transliterated Olimbos, [ˈolimbos] or [ˈolibos]) is the highest mountain in Greece. It is located in the Olympus Range on the border between Thessaly
Thessaly
and Macedonia, between the regional units of Pieria and Larissa, about 80 km (50 mi) southwest from Thessaloniki. Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
has 52 peaks, deep gorges, and exceptional biodiversity.[4] The highest peak, Mytikas, meaning "nose", rises to 2,918 metres (9,573 ft).[1] It is one of the highest peaks in Europe
Europe
in terms of topographic prominence.[2] Olympus was notable in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
as the home of the Greek gods, on the Mytikas peak
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Opera
Opera
Opera
(Italian: [ˈɔːpera]; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere [ˈɔːpere]) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.[1] In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style[2] and arias, a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera
Opera
incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance
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Dante
Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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