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Classical Rabbinical Literature
RABBINIC LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term SIFRUT HAZAL (Hebrew : ספרות חז"ל‎‎ "Literature sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim , Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew : מדרש‎‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Ketuvim
KETUVIM (/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/ ; Biblical Hebrew : כְּתוּבִים‎‎ _Kəṯûḇîm_, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh ( Hebrew Bible ), after Torah (instruction) and Nevi\'im (prophets). In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "Writings". Another name used for this section is Hagiographa . The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under divine inspiration , but with one level less authority than that of prophecy . Found among the Writings within the Hebrew scriptures, I and II Chronicles form one book, along with Ezra and Nehemiah which form a single unit entitled " Ezra–Nehemiah "
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics
Outline of Bible-related topics
Bible
Bible
book Bible
Bible
portal * v * t * e NEVI\'IM (/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/ ; Hebrew : נְבִיאִים‎ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh
Tanakh
), between the Torah
Torah
(instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים ראשונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Rishonim) consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel
Samuel
and Kings; while the Latter Prophets (Hebrew : נביאים אחרונים‎ Nevi'im
Nevi'im
Aharonim) include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and The Twelve minor prophets
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah
Mishnah
* Tosefta —— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud—— Later —— *
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta —— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta —— Amoraic (Gemara) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud —— Later —— * Minor Tractates HALAKHIC MIDRASH —— Exodus —— * Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael *
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e The TORAH (/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/ ; Hebrew : תּוֹרָה‎, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism . It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (_Pentateuch_) of the twenty-four books of the Tanakh , and it usually includes the rabbinic commentaries (_perushim _). The term "Torah" means instruction and offers a way of life for those who follow it; it can mean the continued narrative from Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh, and it can even mean the totality of Jewish teaching, culture and practice
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics Bible book Bible portal * v * t * e The TANAKH (/tɑːˈnɑːx/ ; Hebrew : תַּנַ"ךְ‎, pronounced or ; also _Tenakh_, _Tenak_, _Tanach_), also called the _ Mikra _ or Hebrew Bible , is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament . These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew , with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel , Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text . The Tanakh consists of twenty-four books. _Tanakh_ is an acronym of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions: Torah ("Teaching", also known as the Five Books of Moses), Nevi\'im ("Prophets") and Ketuvim ("Writings")—hence TaNaKh
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Kabbalah
KABBALAH (Hebrew : קַבָּלָה‎, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition" ) is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism
Judaism
is called a _Mekubbal_ (מְקוּבָּל‎). Kabbalah's definition varies according to the tradition and aims of those following it, from its religious origin as an integral part of Judaism, to its later Christian , New Age , and Occultist/western esoteric syncretic adaptations. Kabbalah
Kabbalah
is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging, eternal, and mysterious Ein Sof (infinity) and the mortal and finite universe (God's creation). While it is heavily used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of mystical religious interpretation
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Minhag
MINHAG (Hebrew : מנהג‎ "custom", pl. minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism
Judaism
. A related concept, Nusach (נוסח‎), refers to the traditional order and form of the prayers . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Minhag and Jewish law * 2.1 Discussion in Rabbinic literature * 2.2 Changing minhagim * 2.3 Present day * 3 Nusach * 4 References * 5 External links and resources ETYMOLOGYThe Hebrew root N-H-G (נ-ה-ג‎) means primarily "to drive" or, by extension, "to conduct (oneself)". The actual word minhag appears twice in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
, both times in the same verse and rendered in this translation as "the driving": The watchman reported, saying, "He has reached them, but has not returned
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Synagogue
A SYNAGOGUE, also spelled SYNAGOG (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/ ; from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly', Hebrew
Hebrew
: בית כנסת‎‎ bet kenesset, 'house of assembly' or בית תפילה bet tefila, "house of prayer", שול SHUL, אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary ), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah
Torah
study , called the beith midrash (Sephardi) beis medrash (Ashkenazi)—בית מדרש ('house of study')
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Rabbi
In Judaism , a RABBI /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah . This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי‎ _rabi_ , meaning "My Master" (irregular plural רבנים‎ _rabanim_ ), which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב‎ _rav_ literally means "great one". The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai , active in the early to mid first century CE. In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister , hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons , pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance
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Midrash
In Judaism
Judaism
, the MIDRASH (/ˈmɪdrɑːʃ/ ; Hebrew : מִדְרָשׁ‎; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah
Written Torah
and Oral Torah
Oral Torah
(spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah ) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha ), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture ( Tanakh
Tanakh
). The Midrash, capitalized, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE . The purpose of midrash was to resolve problems in the interpretation of difficult passages of the text of the Hebrew Bible, using Rabbinic principles of hermeneutics and philology to align them with the religious and ethical values of religious teachers
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic —— * Mishnah * Tosefta—— Amoraic ( Gemara ) —— * Jerusalem Talmud * Babylonian Talmud —— Later —— * Minor Tractates HALAKHIC MIDRASH —— Exodus —— * Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael *
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Ashkenazi Jews
ASHKENAZI JEWS, also known as ASHKENAZIC JEWS or simply ASHKENAZIM ( Hebrew
Hebrew
: אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים‎, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation: , singular: , Modern Hebrew: ; also יְהוּדֵי אַשְׁכְּנַז‎ _Y'hudey Ashkenaz_), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced as a distinct community in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium . The traditional diaspora language of Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
is Yiddish (a Germanic language which incorporates several dialects), with Hebrew used only as a sacred language until relatively recently. Throughout their time in Europe, Ashkenazim have made many important contributions to philosophy, scholarship, literature, art, music, and science. Ashkenazim originate from the Jews
Jews
who settled along the Rhine River, in Western Germany
Germany
and Northern France
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Jewish Ethnic Divisions
JEWISH ETHNIC DIVISIONS refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population . Although considered one single self-identifying ethnicity , there are distinctive ethnic subdivisions among