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Classical Rabbinical Literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term Sifrut Hazal (Hebrew: ספרות חז"ל‎ "Literature [of our] sages," where Hazal normally refers only to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim, Midrash
Midrash
(Hebrew: מדרש‎), and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim and parshanim (commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses on Biblical and Talmudic texts. This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses
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Chazal
Chazal or Ḥazal (Hebrew: חז"ל‬), an acronym for the Hebrew "Ḥakhameinu Zikhram Liv'rakha" (חכמינו זכרונם לברכה‬, "Our Sages, may their memory be blessed"), refers to all Jewish sages of the Mishna, Tosefta
Tosefta
and Talmud
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Minhag
Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג‬ "custom", pl. minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism. A related concept, Nusach (נוסח‬), refers to the traditional order and form of the prayers.Contents1 Etymology 2 Minhag and Jewish law2.1 Discussion in Rabbinic literature 2.2 Changing minhagim 2.3 Present day3 Nusach 4 References 5 External links and resourcesEtymology[edit] The Hebrew root N-H-G (נ-ה-ג‬) means primarily "to drive" or, by extension, "to conduct (oneself)". The actual word minhag appears twice in the Hebrew Bible, both times in the same verse and rendered in this translation as "the driving":The watchman reported, saying, "He has reached them, but has not returned
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Synagogue
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/; from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly', Hebrew: בית כנסת‬ bet kenesset, 'house of assembly' or בית תפילה‬ bet tefila, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a large place for prayer (the main sanctuary), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah
Torah
study, called the בית מדרש‬ beth midrash "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh
Tanakh
(the entire Hebrew Bible, including the Torah) reading, study and assembly; however, a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews
Jews
(a minyan) assemble
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Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah. The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai, active in the early-to-mid first century CE.[1] In more recent centuries, the duties of a rabbi became increasingly influenced by the duties of the Protestant Christian minister, hence the title "pulpit rabbis", and in 19th-century Germany and the United States rabbinic activities including sermons, pastoral counseling, and representing the community to the outside, all increased in importance. Within the various Jewish denominations there are different requirements for rabbinic ordination, and differences in opinion regarding who is to be recognized as a rabbi
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Tanakh
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Tanakh
Tanakh
(/tɑːˈnɑːx/;[1] תַּנַ"ךְ, pronounced [taˈnaχ] or [təˈnax]; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian
Christian
Old Testament. These texts are composed mainly in Biblical Hebrew, with some passages in Biblical Aramaic (in the books of Daniel, Ezra and a few others). The traditional Hebrew text is known as the Masoretic Text
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Torah
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t eThe Torah
Torah
(/ˈtɔːrəˌˈtoʊrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‬, "instruction, teaching") is the central reference of Judaism. It has a range of meanings. It can most specifically mean the first five books (Pentateuch) of the 24 books of the Tanakh, and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries (perushim)
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Nevi'im
Outline of Bible-related topics   Bible
Bible
book    Bible
Bible
portalv t e Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(/nəviˈiːm, nəˈviːɪm/;[1] Hebrew: נְבִיאִים‬ Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", "Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
(the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(writings). The Nevi'im
Nevi'im
are divided into two groups
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Ketuvim
Ketuvim
Ketuvim
(/kətuːˈviːm, kəˈtuːvɪm/;[1] Biblical Hebrew: כְּתוּבִים‎ Kəṯûḇîm, "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh
Tanakh
(Hebrew Bible), after Torah
Torah
(instruction) and Nevi'im
Nevi'im
(prophets)
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Talmud
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) —— Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael
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Mishnah
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
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Gemara
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Tosefta
—— Tannaitic ——Mishnah Tosefta—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——Jerusalem Talmud Babylonian Talmud—— Later ——Minor TractatesHalakhic Midrash—— Exodus ——Mekhilta of Rabbi Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai—— Leviticus —— Sifra
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Jewish Ethics
Jewish
Jewish
ethics is the moral philosophy particular to one or both of the Jewish
Jewish
religion and peoples. Serving as a convergence of Judaism
Judaism
and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics, the diverse literature of Jewish
Jewish
ethics's broad range of moral concern classifies it as a type of normative ethics. For two millennia, Jewish
Jewish
thought has focussed on the interplay of ethics with the rule of law
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Targum
The targumim (singular: "targum", Hebrew: תרגום‬) were spoken paraphrases, explanations and expansions of the Jewish scriptures (also called the Tanakh) that a rabbi would give in the common language of the listeners, which was then often Aramaic. That had become necessary near the end of the 1st century BCE, as the common language was in transition and Hebrew was used for little more than schooling and worship.[1] The noun "Targum" is derived from the early semitic quadriliteral root trgm, and the Akkadian term targummanu refers to "translator, interpreter".[2] It occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Ezra 4:7 "..
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