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Classical Physics
Classical physics
Classical physics
refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories. If a currently accepted theory is considered to be "modern," and its introduction represented a major paradigm shift, then the previous theories, or new theories based on the older paradigm, will often be referred to as belonging to the realm of "classical" physics.[citation needed] As such, the definition of a classical theory depends on context. Classical physical concepts are often used when modern theories are unnecessarily complex for a particular situation
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Equations Of Motion
In mathematical physics, equations of motion are equations that describe the behaviour of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.[1] More specifically, the equations of motion describe the behaviour of a physical system as a set of mathematical functions in terms of dynamic variables: normally spatial coordinates and time are used, but others are also possible, such as momentum components and time. The most general choice are generalized coordinates which can be any convenient variables characteristic of the physical system.[2] The functions are defined in a Euclidean space in classical mechanics, but are replaced by curved spaces in relativity. If the dynamics of a system is known, the equations are the solutions to the differential equations describing the motion of the dynamics. There are two main descriptions of motion: dynamics and kinematics. Dynamics is general, since momenta, forces and energy of the particles are taken into account
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Space
Space
Space
is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.[1] Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the Timaeus of Plato, or Socrates
Socrates
in his reflections on what the Greeks called khôra (i.e
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Impulse (physics)
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp[1]) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts. Since force is a vector quantity, impulse is also a vector in the same direction. Impulse applied to an object produces an equivalent vector change in its linear momentum, also in the same direction.[2] The SI unit of impulse is the newton second (N⋅s), and the dimensionally equivalent unit of momentum is the kilogram meter per second (kg⋅m/s). The corresponding English engineering units are the pound-second (lbf⋅s) and the slug-foot per second (slug⋅ft/s). A resultant force causes acceleration and a change in the velocity of the body for as long as it acts. A resultant force applied over a longer time therefore produces a bigger change in linear momentum than the same force applied briefly: the change in momentum is equal to the product of the average force and duration
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Paradigm Shift
A paradigm shift (also radical theory change),[1] a concept identified by the American physicist and philosopher Thomas Kuhn
Thomas Kuhn
(1922–1996), is a fundamental change in the basic concepts and experimental practices of a scientific discipline. Kuhn contrasted these shifts, which characterize a scientific revolution, to the activity of normal science, which he described as scientific work done within a prevailing framework (or paradigm). In this context, the word "paradigm" is used in its original Greek meaning, as "example". The nature of scientific revolutions has been studied by modern philosophy since Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
used the phrase in the preface to his Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(1781). He referred to Greek mathematics
Greek mathematics
and Newtonian physics
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Moment Of Inertia
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis. It depends on the body's mass distribution and the axis chosen, with larger moments requiring more torque to change the body's rotation. It is an extensive (additive) property: For a point mass the moment of inertia is just the mass times the square of perpendicular distance to the rotation axis. The moment of inertia of a rigid composite system is the sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems (all taken about the same axis)
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Mass
Mass
Mass
is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.[1] It also determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies. The basic SI unit
SI unit
of mass is the kilogram (kg). In physics, mass is not the same as weight, even though mass is often determined by measuring the object's weight using a spring scale, rather than balance scale comparing it directly with known masses. An object on the Moon
Moon
would weigh less than it does on Earth
Earth
because of the lower gravity, but it would still have the same mass. This is because weight is a force, while mass is the property that (along with gravity) determines the strength of this force. In Newtonian physics, mass can be generalized as the amount of matter in an object
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Power (physics)
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time. Having no direction, it is a scalar quantity. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine condenser. Another common and traditional measure is horsepower (comparing to the power of a horse). Being the rate of work, the equation for power can be written: power = work time displaystyle text power = frac text work text time The integral of power over time defines the work performed. Because this integral depends on the trajectory of the point of application of the force and torque, this calculation of work is said to be path dependent. As a physical concept, power requires both a change in the physical universe and a specified time in which the change occurs
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Work (physics)
W = F ⋅ s W = τ θPart of a series of articles aboutClassical mechanics F → = m a → displaystyle vec F =m vec a Second
Second
law of motionHistory TimelineBranchesApplied Celestial Continuum Dynamics Kinematics Kinetics Statics StatisticalFundamentalsAcceleration Angular momentum Couple D'Alembert's principle Energykinetic potentialForce Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Impulse Inertia / Moment of inertia MassMechanical power M
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Moment (physics)
In physics, a moment is an expression involving the product of a distance and a physical quantity, and in this way it accounts for how the physical quantity is located or arranged. Moments are usually defined with respect to a fixed reference point; they deal with physical quantities as measured at some distance from that reference point. For example, the moment of force acting on an object, often called torque, is the product of the force and the distance from a reference point. In principle, any physical quantity can be multiplied by distance to produce a moment; commonly used quantities include forces, masses, and electric charge distributions.Contents1 History 2 Elaboration2.1 Examples3 Multipole moments 4 Applications of multipole moments 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The concept of moment in physics is derived from the mathematical concept of moments.[1] [clarification needed]
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Momentum
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object. It can be more generally stated as a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object. It is a three-dimensional vector quantity, possessing a magnitude and a direction. If m is an object's mass and v is the velocity (also a vector), then the momentum is p = m v , displaystyle mathbf p =mmathbf v , In SI units, it is measured in kilogram meters per second (kg⋅m/s). Newton's second law
Newton's second law
of motion states that a body's rate of change in momentum is equal to the net force acting on it. Momentum
Momentum
depends on the frame of reference, but in any inertial frame it is a conserved quantity, meaning that if a closed system is not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum does not change
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Speed
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.[1] The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance travelled by the object divided by the duration of the interval;[2] the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as the duration of the time interval approaches zero. Speed
Speed
has the dimensions of distance divided by time. The SI unit
SI unit
of speed is the metre per second, but the most common unit of speed in everyday usage is the kilometre per hour or, in the US and the UK, miles per hour
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Frame Of Reference
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements. In n dimensions, n+1 reference points are sufficient to fully define a reference frame. Using rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates, a reference frame may be defined with a reference point at the origin and a reference point at one unit distance along each of the n coordinate axes. In Einsteinian relativity, reference frames are used to specify the relationship between a moving observer and the phenomenon or phenomena under observation. In this context, the phrase often becomes "observational frame of reference" (or "observational reference frame"), which implies that the observer is at rest in the frame, although not necessarily located at its origin
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Time
Time
Time
is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.[1][2][3] Time
Time
is a component quantity of various measurements used to sequence e
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Torque
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.[1] Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. In three dimensions, the torque is a pseudovector; for point particles, it is given by the cross product of the position vector (distance vector) and the force vector. The symbol for torque is typically τ displaystyle tau , the lowercase Greek letter tau. When it is called moment of force, it is commonly denoted by M. The magnitude of torque of a rigid body depends on three quantities: the force applied, the lever arm vector[2] connecting the origin to the point of force application, and the angle between the force and lever arm vectors
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Velocity
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time. Velocity is equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion (e.g. 7001600000000000000♠60 km/h to the north). Velocity
Velocity
is an important concept in kinematics, the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies. Velocity
Velocity
is a physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it. The scalar absolute value (magnitude) of velocity is called "speed", being a coherent derived unit whose quantity is measured in the SI (metric system) as metres per second (m/s) or as the SI base unit of (m⋅s−1). For example, "5 metres per second" is a scalar, whereas "5 metres per second east" is a vector
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