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Classical Athens
The city of Athens
Athens
(Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai, modern pronunciation Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC)[1] was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League
Delian League
in the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
against Sparta
Sparta
and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy
Athenian democracy
was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War)
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Lamian War
The Lamian War, or the Hellenic War (323–322 BC) was fought by a coalition of Greek cities including Athens
Athens
and the Aetolian League against Macedon
Macedon
and its ally Boeotia. The war ended in a Macedonian victory. In 323 BC, Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
died leaving the empire to be governed by his generals for his unborn son, Alexander IV
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Hegemony
Hegemony
Hegemony
(UK: /hɪˈɡɛməni, hɪˈdʒɛməni/, US: /hɪˈdʒɛməni/ ( pronunciation (help·info)) or /ˈhɛdʒəˌmoʊni/) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.[1][2][3][4] In ancient Greece (8th century BC – 6th century AD), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states.[5] The dominant state is known as the hegemon.[6] In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural predominance or ascendancy; predominance by one group within a society or milieu"
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Isagoras
Isagoras (Greek: Ἰσαγόρας), son of Tisander, was an Athenian aristocrat in the late 6th century BC. He had remained in Athens during the tyranny of Hippias, but after Hippias was overthrown, he became involved in a struggle for power with Cleisthenes, a fellow aristocrat.[1] In 508 BC he was elected archon eponymous, but Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
opposed him, with support from the majority of the population. Isagoras requested support from the Spartan king Cleomenes I, an old friend who had earlier been given hospitality by Isagoras. According to Herodotus, Cleomenes had had an affair with Isagoras' wife. Isagoras, with Cleomenes' help, expelled Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
and other members of the Alcmaeonidae family on pretext of the Alcmaeonidaean stain (see Megacles)
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Lyceum (Classical)
The Lyceum
Lyceum
(Ancient Greek: Λύκειον, Lykeion) or Lycaeum was a temple dedicated to Apollo Lyceus
Apollo Lyceus
("Apollo the wolf-god"[1]). It was best known for the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
of philosophy founded there by Aristotle
Aristotle
in 334 / 335 BCE
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Cradle Of Civilization
The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged. Current thinking is that there was no single "cradle", but several civilizations that developed independently, with the Fertile Crescent ( Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Ancient Egypt) understood to be the earliest.[1] Other civilizations arose in Asia
Asia
among cultures situated along large river valleys, such as Indo-Gangetic Plain
Indo-Gangetic Plain
in India[2][3] and the Yellow River
River
in China.[4] The extent to which there was significant influence between the early civilizations of the Near East and those of East Asia
Asia
is disputed
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Western Culture
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization, or Christian
Christian
civilization,[2] is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe. The term also applies beyond Europe
Europe
to countries and cultures whose histories are strongly connected to Europe
Europe
by immigration, colonization, or influence
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Greek Drachma
Drachma
Drachma
(Greek: δραχμή Modern Greek: [ðraxˈmi], Ancient Greek: [drakʰmέː];[n 1] pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece
Greece
during several periods in its history:An ancient Greek currency unit issued by many Greek city states during a period of ten centuries, from the Archaic period throughout the Classical period, the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
up to the Roman period under Greek Imperial Coinage. Three modern Greek currencies, the first introduced in 1832 and the last replaced by the euro in 2001 (at the rate of 340.75 drachma to the euro)
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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Antipater
Antipater (/ænˈtɪpətər/; Greek: Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC – 319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon
Macedon
and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.[1] In 320 BC, he became regent of all of Alexander the Great's Empire.Contents1 Career under Philip and Alexander 2 The fight for succession 3 Regent
Regent
of the Empire 4 Death and struggle for succession 5 Family 6 Literary works 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksCareer under Philip and Alexander[edit] Nothing is known of his early career until 342 BC, when he was appointed by Philip to govern Macedon
Macedon
as his regent while the former left for three years of hard and successful campaigning against Thracian and Scythian tribes, which extended Macedonian rule as far as the Hellespont
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Trittys
Trittyes[pronunciation?] (Ancient Greek: τριττύες; singular trittys (τριττύς)) were population divisions in ancient Attica, established by the reforms of Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
in 508 BC. The name means "third." There were thirty trittyes and ten tribes in Attica. Each tribe, or phyle of Athens
Athens
was composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area. Trittyes were composed of one or more demes; demes were the basic unit of division in Attica. References[edit]Fine, John V.A
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Ionian Revolt
The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC. At the heart of the rebellion was the dissatisfaction of the Greek cities of Asia Minor with the tyrants appointed by Persia to rule them, along with the individual actions of two Milesian tyrants, Histiaeus and Aristagoras. The cities of Ionia
Ionia
had been conquered by Persia around 540 BC, and thereafter were ruled by native tyrants, nominated by the Persian satrap in Sardis
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Hippias (son Of Pisistratus)
Hippias of Athens (Greek: Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens between about 527 BC and 510 BC when Cleomenes I of Sparta successfully invaded Athens and forced Hippias to leave Athens.[1] Life[edit] The name and family of the mother of Hippias are unknown. [2] He succeeded Peisistratus as tyrant of Athens in 528/7 BC. His brother Hipparchus, who may have ruled jointly with him, was murdered by Harmodius and Aristogeiton (the tyrannicides) in 514 BC. Hippias executed the tyrannicides and it was said that he became a bitter and cruel ruler, executing a large number of citizens and imposing harsh taxes.[3] Hippias's cruelty soon created unrest among his subjects
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Phyle
Phyle (Greek φυλή phulē, "clan, race, people"; pl. phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for clan or tribe. They were usually ruled by a basileus. Some of them can be classified by their geographic location: the Geleontes, the Argadeis, the Hopletes, and the Agikoreis, in Ionia ; the Hylleans, the Pamphyles, the Dymanes, in the Dorian region.Contents1 Attic tribes 2 The ten tribes of Thurii 3 Footnotes 4 ReferencesAttic tribes[edit] The best-attested new system was that created by Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
for Attica
Attica
in or just after 508 BC. The landscape was regarded as comprising three zones: urban, coastal and inland
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Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
(/ˈklaɪsθɪˌniːz/; Greek: Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.[1][2] For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy."[3] He was a member of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid clan, and the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes
Cleisthenes
of Sicyon, as the younger son of the latter's daughter Agariste and her husband Megacles. He was also credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens’ assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics.[4] In 510 BC, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras
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