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Classical Athens
The city of ATHENS ( Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state ) of the same name, located in Attica , Greece , leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League . Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras . This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War ). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles
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History Of Athens
ATHENS is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years. Situated in southern Europe
Europe
, Athens
Athens
became the leading city of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
in the first millennium BC, and its cultural achievements during the 5th century BC laid the foundations of western civilization . During the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, the city experienced a decline, then recovered under the later Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and was relatively prosperous during the period of the Crusades
Crusades
(12th and 13th centuries), benefiting from Italian trade. Following a period of sharp decline under the rule of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, Athens
Athens
re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent Greek state
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Peloponnesian War
The PELOPONNESIAN WAR (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta . Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In the first phase, the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica
Attica
, while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the coast of the Peloponnese and attempt to suppress signs of unrest in its empire. This period of the war was concluded in 421 BC, with the signing of the Peace of Nicias
Nicias
. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. In 415 BC, Athens dispatched a massive expeditionary force to attack Syracuse in Sicily
Sicily
; the attack failed disastrously, with the destruction of the entire force, in 413 BC
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Athens
ATHENS (/ˈæθᵻnz/ ; Modern Greek : Αθήνα, _Athína_ , Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) is the capital and largest city of Greece . Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world\'s oldest cities , with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years, and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th century BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus , which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens
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Attic Greek
ATTIC GREEK is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica , including of the city of Athens . Of the ancient dialects , it is the most similar to later Greek and is the standard form of the language that is studied in ancient Greek language courses. Attic Greek is sometimes included in the Ionic dialect . Together, Attic and Ionic are the primary influences on Modern Greek
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Ancient Greek Religion
_Pontic Steppe_ * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture _Caucasus_ * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo _Eastern Europe_ * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni _Northern Europe_* Corded ware * Baden
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Athenian Democracy
ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis ) of Athens , comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica , and is the first known democracy in the world. Other Greek cities set up democracies, most following the Athenian model, but none are as well documented as Athens'. It was a system of direct democracy , in which participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a resident alien nor a slave , and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000" or "no more than 30 percent of the total adult population." The longest-lasting democratic leader was Pericles
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Strategos
STRATEGOS or STRATEGUS, plural STRATEGOI, (Greek : στρατηγός, pl. στρατηγοί; Doric Greek : στραταγός, stratagos; literally meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general . In the Hellenistic world and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army
it is the highest officer rank
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Pericles
PERICLES (/ˈpɛrɪkliːz/ ; Greek : Περικλῆς _Periklēs_, pronounced in Classical Attic ; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman , orator and general of Athens
Athens
during the Golden Age —specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. He was descended, through his mother, from the powerful and historically influential Alcmaeonid family. Pericles
Pericles
had such a profound influence on Athenian society that Thucydides
Thucydides
, a contemporary historian, acclaimed him as "the first citizen of Athens". Pericles
Pericles
turned the Delian League
Delian League
into an Athenian empire, and led his countrymen during the first two years of the Peloponnesian War
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Ecclesia (ancient Athens)
The ECCLESIA or EKKLESIA (Greek : ἐκκλησία) was the principal assembly of the democracy of ancient Athens . It was the popular assembly, open to all male citizens as soon as they qualified for citizenship. In 594 BCE, Solon
Solon
allowed all Athenian citizens to participate, regardless of class, even the thetes . The assembly was responsible for declaring war, military strategy and electing the strategoi and other officials. It was responsible for nominating and electing magistrates, thus indirectly electing the members of the Areopagus
Areopagus
. It had the final say on legislation and the right to call magistrates to account after their year of office. A typical meeting of the Assembly probably contained around 6000 people, out of a total citizen population of 30 000-60 000
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Classical Antiquity
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (also the CLASSICAL ERA, CLASSICAL PERIOD or CLASSICAL AGE) is a term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea , comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome , collectively known as the Greco-Roman world . It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe , North Africa and Southwestern Asia . Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). It ends with the dissolution of classical culture at the close of Late Antiquity (300–600), blending into the Early Middle Ages (600–1000)
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Cleisthenes
CLEISTHENES (/ˈklaɪsθᵻˌniːz/ ; Greek : Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also CLISTHENES or KLEISTHENES) was a noble Athenian of the Alcmaeonid family. He is credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens
Athens
and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC. For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy." He was the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon , as the younger son of the latter's daughter Agariste and her husband Megacles
Megacles
. Also, he was credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens’ assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics
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Delian League
The DELIAN LEAGUE, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states , members numbering between 150, 173, to 330 under the leadership of Athens , whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire
Empire
after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea
Battle of Plataea
at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece . The League's modern name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos , where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture, Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC. Shortly after its inception, Athens began to use the League's navy for its own purposes – which led to its naming by historians as the ATHENIAN EMPIRE. This behavior frequently led to conflict between Athens and the less powerful members of the League
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Thirty Tyrants
The THIRTY TYRANTS ( Ancient Greek : οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, _hoi triákonta týrannoi_) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE. Upon Lysander 's request, the Thirty were elected as a government, not just as a legislative committee. The Thirty Tyrants maintained power for thirteen months. Though brief, their reign resulted in the killing of 5% of the Athenian population, the confiscation of citizens' property, and the exile of other democratic supporters. They became known as the "Thirty Tyrants" because of their cruel and oppressive tactics. The two leading members were Critias and Theramenes
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Second Athenian Empire
The SECOND ATHENIAN EMPIRE or Confederacy was a maritime confederation of Aegean city-states from 378–355 BC and headed by Athens , primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta
Sparta
and secondly, the Persian Empire . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Rise of Thebes * 3 Later history * 4 References * 5 Works cited * 6 Further reading ORIGINSThe formation of the confederacy was stimulated by the invasion of Attica by Sphodrias of Sparta
Sparta
and Sparta's refusal to prosecute him for his actions. It was extremely popular at first, with a number of states previously controlled by Sparta
Sparta
signing up as members due to Sparta's increasing imperialism over the Decree of Aristoteles . An inscribed "prospectus" for the league was found at Athens (Inscriptions Grecques 2, 43, also known as the Aristoteles decree) dating to 377 BC, detailing the aims of the new league
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Antipater
ANTIPATER (/ænˈtɪpətər/ ; Greek : Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC – 319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
and Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
, and father of King Cassander . In 320 BC, he became regent of all of Alexander the Great's Empire
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