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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Stylistics (linguistics)
Stylistics, a branch of applied linguistics, is the study and interpretation of texts in regard to their linguistic and tonal style. As a discipline, it links literary criticism to linguistics. It does not function as an autonomous domain on its own, and it can be applied to an understanding of literature and journalism as well as linguistics.[1][2][3] Sources of study in stylistics may range from canonical works of writing to popular texts, and from advertising copy to news,[4] non-fiction, and popular culture, as well as to political and religious discourse.[5] Indeed, as recent work in critical stylistics,[6] multimodal stylistics[7] and mediated stylistics[8] has made clear, non-literary texts may be of just as much interest to stylisticians as literary ones
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Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics, morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒlədʒi/[1]) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.[2][3] It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words,[4] and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.[5] While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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Classical Latin
Classical Latin
Latin
is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin
Latin
language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In some later periods, it was regarded as "good" Latin, with later versions being viewed as debased or corrupt. The word Latin
Latin
is now taken by default as meaning "Classical Latin", so that, for example, modern Latin
Latin
textbooks describe Classical Latin. Marcus Tullius Cicero
Cicero
and his contemporaries of the late republic, while using lingua latina and sermo latinus to mean the Latin
Latin
language as opposed to Greek or other languages, and sermo vulgaris or sermo vulgi to refer to the vernacular, referred to the speech they valued most and in which they wrote as latinitas,[1] "Latinity", with the implication of good
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Horn Of Africa
Gaaffaa Afriikaa‎ Geeska Afrika‎ የአፍሪካ ቀንድ‎ القرن الأفريقي‎ ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ‎Countries and territories Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia SomaliaMajor regional organizations Arab
Arab
League, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Community of Sahel-Saharan States, Intergovernmental Authority on DevelopmentPopulation 122,618,170 (2016 est.)Area 1,882,757 km2LanguagesAfar Amharic Oromo Somali TigrinyaReligion Islam, Christianity, Traditional faithsTime Zones UTC+03:00
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Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
(/əˈbæsɪd/ or /ˈæbəsɪd/ Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة‎ al-Khilāfatu al-‘Abbāsīyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
descended from Muhammad's uncle, Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib
(566–653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name.[2] They ruled as caliphs for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad
Baghdad
in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE (132 AH). The Abbasid caliphate first centred its government in Kufa, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur
Al-Mansur
founded the city of Baghdad, near the Sasanian capital city of Ctesiphon
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Lexis (linguistics)
In generative linguistics, a lexis or lexicon is the complete set of all possible words in a language (vocabulary). In this sense, child, children, child's and children's are four different words in the English lexicon. In systemic-functional linguistics, a lexis or lexical item is the way one calls a particular thing or a type of phenomenon. Since a lexis from a systemic-functional perspective is a way of calling, it can be realised by multiple grammatical words such as "The White House", "New York City" or "heart attack"
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Cursive
Cursive
Cursive
(also known as script, longhand or joined-up writing, among other names[note 1]) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is generally joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts. The writing style can be further divided as "looped", "italic" or "connected". The cursive method is used with a number of alphabets due to its improved writing speed and infrequent pen lifting
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Syntax
In linguistics, syntax (/ˈsɪntæks/[1][2]) is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order. The term syntax is also used to refer to the study of such principles and processes.[3] The goal of many syntacticians is to discover the syntactic rules common to all languages. In mathematics, syntax refers to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as formal languages used in logic
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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North Africa
North Africa
Africa
is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries situated in the northern-most region of the African continent. The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic
Atlantic
shores of Morocco
Morocco
in the west, to the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east. Others have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region known by the French during colonial times as “Afrique du Nord” and by the Arabs
Arabs
as the Maghreb
Maghreb
(“West”). The most commonly accepted definition includes Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, as well as Libya
Libya
and Egypt
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Second Language
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person. In contrast, a foreign language is a language that is learned in an area where that language is not generally spoken by the community as a whole. Some languages, often called auxiliary languages, one of them being English, are used primarily as second languages or lingua francas. More informally, a second language can be said to be any language learned in addition to one's native language, especially in the context of second-language acquisition (that is, learning a new foreign language). A person's first language is not necessarily their dominant language, the one they use most or are most comfortable with. For example, the Canadian census defines first language for its purposes as "the first language learned in childhood and still spoken", recognizing that for some, the earliest language may be lost, a process known as language attrition
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Najd
Najd
Najd
or Nejd
Nejd
(Arabic: نجد‎, Najd, Arabic pronunciation: [nad͡ʒd]) is a geographical central region of Saudi
Saudi
Arabia, alone accounting for almost a third of the population of the country.[1] Najd
Najd
consists of modern administrative regions of Riyadh, Al-Qassim, and Ha'il
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Lakhmid
The Lakhmids
Lakhmids
(Arabic: اللخميون‎) or Banu Lakhm (بنو لخم) were an Arab kingdom of southern Iraq
Iraq
with al-Hirah as their capital, from about 300 to 602 AD. They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sassanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars.[2]Contents1 History 2 Lakhmid Kingdom facts 3 Lakhmid dynasty and its descendants3.1 Lakhmid rulers 3.2 Al Mandhari / Al Na'amani families 3.3 Al Abbadi dynasty4 In literature 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksHistory[edit]Near East in 565, showing the Lakhmids
Lakhmids
and their neighborsA Persian manuscript from the 15th century describing the constructing of al-Khornaq Castle in al-Hirah.The Lakhmid Kingdom was founded by the Lakhum tribe that emigrated from Yemen
Yemen
in the second century and ruled by the Banu Lakhm, hence the name given it
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Al-Hirah
Al-Hirah (Arabic: الحيرة‎ al-Ḥīrah, Syriac: ܚܝܪܬܐ‎ Ḥīrtā) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia located south of what is now Kufa in south-central Iraq.Contents1 History1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 Spread of Islam2 See also 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksHistory[edit] Middle Ages[edit] Al-Hirah was a significant city in pre-Islamic Arab history. Al-Hirah (4th-7th centuries) served as the capital of the Lakhmids, an Arab vassal kingdom of the Sasanian Empire, whom it helped in containing the nomadic Arabs to the south. The Lakhmid rulers of al-Hirah were recognized by Shapur II (337-358), the tenth Sasanian emperor. Ḥīrā was a Christian centre, being a diocese of the Church of the East between the fourth and eleventh centuries. A particular Mār 'Abdīšo' (Syriac: ܡܪܝ ܥܒܕܝܫܘܥ‎) was born in Maysan (Syriac: ܡܝܫܢ‎ Mayšān) and moved to Ḥīrā after studying elsewhere under Mār 'Abdā
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