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Civil Parish
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. It is an administrative parish, in contrast to an ecclesiastical parish. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 80,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. In a limited number of cases a parish might include a whole city where city status has been granted by the Monarch. Reflecting this diverse nature, a civil parish may be known as a town, village, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council. Approximately 35% of the English population live in a civil parish
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Act For The Relief Of The Poor 1601
The Poor Relief Act
Poor Relief Act
1601 (43 Eliz 1 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England. The Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601, popularly known as the Elizabethan Poor Law, "43rd Elizabeth"[3] or the Old Poor Law[4] was passed in 1601 and created a poor law system for England and Wales.[5] It formalised earlier practices of poor relief distribution in England and Wales[6] and is generally considered a refinement of the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1597 that established Overseers of the Poor.[7] The "Old Poor Law" was not one law but a collection of laws passed between the 16th and 18th centuries. The system's administrative unit was the parish. It was not a centralised government policy[6] but a law which made individual parishes responsible for Poor Law legislation
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Elizabeth I Of England
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603)[1] was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana
Gloriana
or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the last monarch of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII
Henry VIII
and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two-and-a-half years after Elizabeth's birth. Anne's marriage to Henry VIII
Henry VIII
was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her half-brother, Edward VI, ruled until his death in 1553, bequeathing the crown to Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey
and ignoring the claims of his two half-sisters, Elizabeth and the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Mary, in spite of statute law to the contrary. Edward's will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey
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Rector (ecclesiastical)
A rector is, in an ecclesiastical sense, a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations,[1][2] and in Islam.[3] In contrast, a vicar is also a cleric but functions as an assistant and representative of an administrative leader.[4][5]Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Roman Catholic Church 1.2 Anglican churches 1.3 Protestant churches 1.4 Islam2 See also 3 Notes 4 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit] In ancient times bishops, as rulers of cities and provinces, especially in the Papal States, were called rectors, as were administrators of the patrimony of the Church (e.g
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Dissolution Of The Monasteries
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of anti-Catholic administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales
Wales
and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions
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Rates (tax)
Rates are a type of property tax system in the United Kingdom, and in places with systems deriving from the British one, the proceeds of which are used to fund local government. Some other countries have taxes with a more or less comparable role, like France's taxe d'habitation.Contents1 Rates by country1.1 Australia 1.2 Canada 1.3 Hong Kong 1.4 Ireland 1.5 Israel 1.6 New Zealand 1.7 United Kingdom 1.8 United States2 See also 3 References3.1 Citations 3.2 Sources4 External linksRates by country[edit] Australia[edit] Local government
Local government
authorities levy annual taxes, which are called council rates or shire rates. The basis on which these charges can be calculated varies from state to state, but is usually based in some way on the value of property
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Charitable Organization
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization (NPO) whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. charitable, educational, religious, or other activities serving the public interest or common good). The legal definition of a charitable organisation (and of charity) varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country. The regulation, the tax treatment, and the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations also vary. Financial figures (e.g. tax refund, revenue from fundraising, revenue from sale of goods and services or revenue from investment) are important indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity, especially to charity evaluators. This information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, and thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organisations often depend partly on donations from businesses
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Henry VIII Of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Church Of England
The Church of England
England
(C of E) is the state church of England.[3][4][5] The Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
(currently Justin Welby) is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor. The Church of England
England
is also the mother church of the international Anglican
Anglican
Communion
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Methodism
Methodism
Methodism
or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England. George Whitefield
George Whitefield
and John Wesley's brother Charles Wesley
Charles Wesley
were also significant early leaders in the movement. It originated as a revival within the 18th century Church of England
Church of England
and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, and beyond because of vigorous missionary work,[1] today claiming approximately 80 million adherents worldwide.[2][nb 1] Wesley's theology focused on sanctification and the effect of faith on the character of a Christian
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Urban District (Great Britain And Ireland)
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government
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Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
(PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
Parliament of the United Kingdom
passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey. It completely replaced earlier legislation based on the Poor Law of 1601 and attempted to fundamentally change the poverty relief system in England and Wales (Scotland made similar changes to its poor law in 1845). It resulted from the 1832 Royal Commission into the Operation of the Poor Laws which included Edwin Chadwick, John Bird Sumner
John Bird Sumner
and Nassau William Senior. Chadwick was dissatisfied with the law that resulted from his report. The Act was passed two years after the 1832 Reform Act extended the franchise to the middle-classes
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Sanitary District
Sanitary districts were established in England and Wales
England and Wales
in 1875 and in Ireland
Ireland
in 1878. The districts were of two types, based on existing structures:Urban sanitary districts in towns with existing local government bodies Rural sanitary districts in the remaining rural areas of poor law unions.Each district was governed by a sanitary authority and was responsible for various public health matters such as providing clean drinking water, sewers, street cleaning, and clearing slum housing. In England and Wales, both rural and urban sanitary districts were replaced in 1894 by the Local Government Act 1894
Local Government Act 1894
by the more general rural districts and urban districts
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Municipal Borough
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales
England and Wales
between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
from 1840 to 2002. Broadly similar structures existed in Scotland
Scotland
from 1833 to 1975 with the reform of royal burghs and creation of police burghs.Contents1 England
England
and Wales1.1 Municipal Corporations Act 1835 1.2 Corporation and council1.2.1 Town councils1.3 County and non-county boroughs 1.4 Abolition2 Ireland 1840–1922 3 Northern Ireland 4 Irish Free State
Irish Free State
and the Republic of Ireland 5 See also 6 References England
England
and Wales[edit] Municipal Corporations Act 1835[edit] Boroughs had existed in England and Wales
England and Wales
since mediæval times
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Chapelry
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England and parts of Lowland Scotland
Lowland Scotland
up to the mid 19th century.[1] It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which was a place of worship subsidiary to the main parish church.[2] Such chapelries were common in northern England
England
where the parishes had been established in medieval times when the area was sparsely populated, thus obliging parishioners to travel long distances to the parish church. A chapelry also had a role in civil government, as a subdivision of a parish which was used as a basis for the Poor Law
Poor Law
until the establishment of Poor Law
Poor Law
Unions in the 19th century
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Parochial Church Council
A parochial church council (PCC) is the executive committee of a Church of England
Church of England
parish and consists of clergy and churchwardens of the parish, together with representatives of the laity. Legally the council is responsible for the financial affairs of the church parish and the maintenance of its assets, such as churches and church halls, and for promoting the mission of the church.Contents1 History 2 Powers and duties 3 Membership 4 Charitable status 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingHistory[edit] PCCs were created by the Rules for the Representation of the Laity scheduled to the Constitution of the former National Assembly of the Church of England
Church of England
(or Church Assembly), which was adopted by the Convocations of Canterbury and York in 1919.[1] Most of the remaining functions of the vestry meetings of parishes, and of the churchwardens of parishes, (i.e
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