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City (New Jersey)
A City
City
in the context of New Jersey
New Jersey
local government refers to one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government. Despite the widely held perception of a city as a large, urban area, cities in New Jersey
New Jersey
have a confused history as a form of government and vary in size from large, densely populated areas to much smaller hamlets. History[edit] The 1897 and 1899 city charter laws applied only to areas with a population under 12,000, and provided for a directly elected mayor, who served a two-year term and had strong executive powers. Both featured a council elected from wards to staggered three-year terms, plus one councilman elected at-large for a term of two years. The Mayor had veto power, which could be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the Council
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Urban Area
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets and in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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City
A city is a large human settlement.[4][5] Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, roughly half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability.[6] Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification
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1923 Municipal Manager Law
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate
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Hamlet (place)
A hamlet is a small human settlement. In different jurisdictions and geographies, hamlets may be the size of a town, village or parish, be considered a smaller settlement or subdivision of a larger, or be treated as a satellite entity to a larger settlement. The word and concept of a hamlet have roots in the Anglo-Norman settlement of England, where the old French hamlet came to apply to small human settlements. In British geography, a hamlet is considered smaller than a village and distinctly without a church.Contents1 Etymology 2 Australia 3 Canada 4 France 5 Germany 6 India 7 Indonesia 8 Pakistan 9 Romania 10 Switzerland 11 Ukraine 12 United Kingdom 13 United States13.1 Mississippi 13.2 New York 13.3 Oregon14 Vietnam 15 See also 16 References 17 External linksEtymology[edit] The word comes from Anglo-Norman hamelet(t)e, corresponding to Old French hamelet, the diminutive of Old French
Old French
hamel
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Borough (New Jersey)
A borough (also spelled boro), in the context of local government in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New Jersey, refers to one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government (in addition to those established under a Special
Special
Charter).[1] Though it is now the most common form of government in New Jersey, by 1875 only 17 boroughs had been created, all by special acts of the legislature. These original boroughs were subdivisions of townships, established by state charter; Elizabeth was the first, established by royal charter in 1740, within the now defunct Elizabeth Township. About half of them had been dissolved, or changed into other forms of government — often cities
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New Jersey
New Jersey
Jersey
is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. It is a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River
Delaware River
and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bay
Delaware Bay
and Delaware. New Jersey
Jersey
is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017,[20] and the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states
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Charter Study Commission
A Charter Study Commission is one of two options available to residents of New Jersey
New Jersey
to pursue a change in their form of government. The other option is a direct petition. The charter study commission approach is only available under the Faulkner Act. A charter study commission can be elected, most often when residents are dissatisfied with the existing form of government, but there is no agreement as to what new form should be implemented. A ballot question to form a charter study commission can be performed through a petition or by the existing municipal governing body enacting an ordinance to form a commission
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Special Charter (New Jersey)
A special charter allows a New Jersey
New Jersey
municipality to operate under a charter that differs from those of the traditional forms of government or the many options available under the Faulkner Act
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Faulkner Act (mayor–council–administrator)
The Faulkner Act, or Optional Municipal Charter Law, provides for New Jersey municipalities to adopt a mayor–council–administrator form of government. Voters elect a mayor and six council members at large for staggered terms with partisan elections. The mayor serves a four-year term; council members serve three-year terms. An organization meeting is held on January 1. Up to six administrative departments may be created by ordinance
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Faulkner Act (small Municipality)
The Faulkner Act, or Optional Municipal Charter Law, provides for New Jersey municipalities to adopt a "small municipality" form of government. Unlike the other Faulkner Act forms of municipal government, the small municipality plan is available only to municipalities with a population of under 12,000. Voters select either three, five, or seven council members or a mayor and two, four, or six council members. Council members are elected at-large. Council serves 3-year concurrent or staggered terms. An elected Mayor, if provided for, is elected by voters and serves a 4-year term. Elections may be partisan or nonpartisan
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Faulkner Act (council–manager)
The Faulkner Act, or Optional Municipal Charter Law, provides for New Jersey municipalities to adopt a council–manager government. The council consists of five, seven, or nine members elected by the public. One of the councilors – chosen either by at-large election or by a vote among the councilors – serves as the mayor, who is merely the chair of the council and has no special privileges such as veto power. The council hires a manager, who serves as the chief executive and administrative official. The manager prepares the budget, appoints and removes department heads, and attends council meetings, but does not have a vote. As in all Faulkner Act municipalities, citizens in the council–manager system enjoy the right of initiative and referendum, meaning that proposed ordinances can be introduced directly by the people without action by the local governing body
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Walsh Act
The Walsh Act is legislation in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New Jersey
New Jersey
that permits municipalities to adopt a non-partisan commission form of government. The legislation was signed by Governor of New Jersey Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
on April 25, 1911. The commissions in Walsh Act municipalities are composed of either three or five members elected for four-year concurrent terms. The commissioners also serve as department heads in addition to their legislative functions. The commissioners elect one commissioner as mayor, however the mayor is only responsible for his or her departments and serves as the chair of the commission. The Walsh Act was modeled on the commission system that was set up in Galveston, Texas
Galveston, Texas
in the wake of the devastating Hurricane of 1900
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Village (New Jersey)
A village, in the context of New Jersey
New Jersey
local government, is one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government. The Village Act of 1891 defined the form of government to consist of a five-member board of trustees to be elected to three-year staggered terms. One member serves as president, one member serves as treasurer. This act was repealed by the State Legislature in 1961. The Village Act of 1989 changed the essence of the Village form of government, essentially eliminating it in all but name
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