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City
A CITY is a large and permanent human settlement . CITIES generally have extensive systems for housing , transportation , sanitation , utilities , land use , and communication . Their density facilitates interaction between people and businesses, sometimes benefiting both parties in the process. Historically citydwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but today, following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization , half of the world population is said to live in cities. Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas , creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification. The most populated city proper is Shanghai while the largest metropolitan areas also include the Greater Tokyo Area and Jabodetabek ( Jakarta ). The cities of Faiyum , Damascus , and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation
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Alexandria
ALEXANDRIA (/ˌælɪɡˈzændriə/ or /ˌælɪɡˈzɑːndriə/ ; Arabic : الإسكندرية _al-Iskandariyyah_; Egyptian Arabic : اسكندرية‎‎ _Eskendereya_; Coptic : Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ, Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ _Alexandria, Rakotə_) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt , extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez . Alexandria is also an important tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small Ancient Egyptian town _c._ 331 BC by Alexander the Great . It became an important center of the Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Hellenistic and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1000 years until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo )
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Rhacotis
RHACOTIS (Egyptian: 𓂋𓏤𓂝𓀨𓏏𓊖 = Râ-KEDET, Greek _Ῥακῶτις_; also romanized as RHAKOTIS) was the name for a city on the northern coast of Egypt at the site of Alexandria . Classical sources from the Greco-Roman era, in Greek and in hieroglyphics, give Rhacotis as an older name for Alexandria before the arrival of Alexander the Great . Rhacotis was located west of the now-silted Canopic branch of the Nile . Unlike ports within the Nile Delta , it was reliably accessible to large ships, and enough water for a city could be supplied by a canal. It is also described as the home of sentinels who protected the Egyptian kingdom from outsiders. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Classical descriptions * 3 Archaeology * 4 Significance * 5 References * 5.1 Bibliography * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe root of the name, _qd _, means "construct". The prefix rꜥ could mean "mouth", "bridge", "entry", or the God Ra , but as it can also be a morphological marker of ongoing action, a likely interpretation of the name as a whole is "building site" or "construction in progress"
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History Of Alexandria
The HISTORY OF ALEXANDRIA dates back to the city's founding, by Alexander the Great , in 331 BC. Yet, before that, there were some big port cities just east of Alexandria, at the western edge of what is now Abu Qir Bay . The Canopic (westernmost) branch of the Nile Delta still existed at that time, and was widely used for shipping. After its foundation, Alexandria became the seat of the Ptolemaic Kingdom , and quickly grew to be one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world. Only Rome , which gained control of Egypt in 30 BC, eclipsed Alexandria in size and wealth. The city fell to the Arabs in AD 641, and a new capital of Egypt , Fustat , was founded on the Nile . After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended, it fell into a long decline, which by the late Ottoman period, had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. The French army under Napoleon captured the city in 1798 and the British soon captured it from the French , retaining Alexandria within their sphere of influence for 150 years. The city grew in the early 19th century under the industrialization program of Mohammad Ali , the viceroy of Egypt
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Satellite Imagery
SATELLITE IMAGERY are images of Earth or other planets collected by Imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps and Google Maps . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Uses * 3 Resolution and data * 4 Imaging satellites * 4.1 GeoEye * 4.2 DigitalGlobe * 4.3 Spot Image * 4.4 ASTER * 4.5 BlackBridge * 4.6 ImageSat International * 4.7 Meteosat * 5 Disadvantages * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY The satellite images were made from pixels. The first crude image taken by the satellite Explorer 6 shows a sunlit area of the Central Pacific Ocean and its cloud cover. The photo was taken when the satellite was about 17,000 mi (27,000 km) above the surface of the earth on August 14, 1959. At the time, the satellite was crossing Mexico. The first images from space were taken on sub-orbital flights . The U.S-launched V-2 flight on October 24, 1946 took one image every 1.5 seconds. With an apogee of 65 miles (105 km), these photos were from five times higher than the previous record, the 13.7 miles (22 km) by the Explorer II balloon mission in 1935. The first satellite (orbital) photographs of Earth were made on August 14, 1959 by the U.S. Explorer 6
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Taiheiyō Belt
The TAIHEIYō BELT (太平洋ベルト, Taiheiyō beruto, literally "Pacific Belt"), also known as the TOKAIDO CORRIDOR, is the name for the megalopolis in Japan extending from Ibaraki Prefecture in the north to Fukuoka Prefecture in the south, running for almost 1,200 km (750 mi). The urbanization zone runs mainly along the Pacific coast (hence the name) of Japan from Kantō region to Osaka , and the Inland Sea (on both sides) to Fukuoka , and is concentrated along the Tōkaidō -Sanyō rail corridor. A view of Japan at night clearly shows a rather dense and continuous strip of light (demarcating urban zones) that delineates the region. The high population is particularly due to the large plains – the Kantō Plain , Kinai Plain, and Nōbi Plain – which facilitate building in mountainous Japan. Coastal regions are at high risk of earthquakes and tsunamis, due to the nearby Nankai Trough (Nankai megathrust earthquakes ) and Sagami Trough , notably the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake , and further damaging earthquakes are expected in the region; the combination of population density and seismic activity is responsible for the high-impact earthquake and tsunami risk in Japan. Although it contains the majority of Japan's population, references to it in Japanese are mainly economic or regional in nature. The term was first used in 1960 in an Economic Commission Subcommittee Report formed to double the national income
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Megalopolis
A MEGALOPOLIS (sometimes called a MEGAPOLIS; also MEGAREGION, or SUPERCITY) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas . The term was used by Patrick Geddes in his 1915 book _Cities in Evolution_, by Oswald Spengler in his 1918 book _The Decline of the West_, and Lewis Mumford in his 1938 book _The Culture of Cities_, which described it as the first stage in urban overdevelopment and social decline. Later, it was used by Jean Gottmann in his landmark 1961 study, _Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States_, to describe the chain of metropolitan areas along the northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston , Massachusetts , through New York City , Philadelphia , Baltimore , and ending in Washington, D.C. and Northern Virginia . The latter is sometimes called the " BosWash megalopolis "
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Piraeus
PIRAEUS (/paɪˈriːəs, pɪˈreɪ.əs/ ; Greek : Πειραιάς _Pireás_ , Ancient Greek : Πειραιεύς, _Peiraieús_, pronounced ) is a port city in the region of Attica , Greece . Piraeus is located within the Athens urban area , 12 kilometres (7 miles) southwest from its city center (municipality of Athens), and lies along the east coast of the Saronic Gulf . According to the 2011 census, Piraeus had a population of 163,688 people within its administrative limits, making it the fourth largest municipality in Greece and the second largest within the urban area of the Greek capital, following the municipality of Athens. The municipality of Piraeus and several other suburban municipalities within the regional unit of Piraeus form the greater Piraeus area, with a total population of 448,997. View from Mikrolimano,Piraeus Piraeus has a long recorded history, dating to ancient Greece . The city was largely developed in the early 5th century BC, when it was selected to serve as the port city of classical Athens and was transformed into a prototype harbour, concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens. During the Golden Age of Athens the Long Walls were constructed to connect Athens with Piraeus
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Athens
ATHENS (/ˈæθᵻnz/ ; Modern Greek : Αθήνα, _Athína_ , Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) is the capital and largest city of Greece . Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world\'s oldest cities , with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years, and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th century BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus , which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A centre for the arts , learning and philosophy , home of Plato 's Academy and Aristotle 's Lyceum , it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy , largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans . In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global city and one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe
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Grid Plan
The GRID PLAN, GRID STREET PLAN, or GRIDIRON PLAN is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid. The infrastructure cost for regular grid patterns is generally higher than for patterns with discontinuous streets. Costs for streets depend largely on four variables: street width, street length, block width and pavement width. Two inherent characteristics of the grid plan, frequent intersections and orthogonal geometry, assist pedestrian movement. The geometry helps with orientation and wayfinding and its frequent intersections with the choice and directness of route to desired destinations. In ancient Rome , the grid plan method of land measurement was called centuriation . The grid plan dates from antiquity and originated in multiple cultures; some of the earliest planned cities were built using grid plans
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Aristotle
ARISTOTLE (/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/ ; Greek : Ἀριστοτέλης, pronounced , _Aristotélēs_; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira , Chalkidice , on the northern periphery of Classical Greece . His father, Nicomachus , died when Aristotle was a child, whereafter Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato\'s Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC). His writings cover many subjects – including physics , biology , zoology , metaphysics , logic , ethics, aesthetics , poetry , theater, music, rhetoric , linguistics , politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy . Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon , tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC. Teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books, which were written on papyrus scrolls
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Hippodamus Of Miletus
HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS (/hɪˈpɒdəməs/ ; Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ὁ Μιλήσιος, _Hippodamos ho Milesios_; 498 – 408 BC), was an ancient Greek architect , urban planner , physician , mathematician , meteorologist and philosopher , who is considered to be "the Father of European Urban Planning ", the namesake of the "Hippodamian Plan" (grid plan ) of city layout. Hippodamus was born in Miletus and lived during the 5th century BC, on the spring of the Ancient Greece classical epoch. His father was Euryphon. According to Aristotle, Hippodamus was the first author who wrote upon the theory of government, without any knowledge of practical affairs. His plans of Greek cities were characterised by order and regularity in contrast to the intricacy and confusion common to cities of that period, even Athens . He is seen as the originator of the idea that a town plan might formally embody and clarify a rational social order. CONTENTS * 1 Personality * 2 Achievements * 2.1 The "Best State" * 2.2 Urban planner * 2.3 Writings * 3 Philosophy * 4 References * 5 External PERSONALITYHe is referred to in the works of Aristotle , Stobaeus , Strabo , Hesychius , Photius , and Theano . He evidently had a reputation as a lover of attention
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City (other)
A CITY is generally an urban settlement with a large population. CITY or CITIES may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Places * 2 Publications * 3 Music * 4 Television * 5 Other uses * 6 See also PLACES * City (Zürich) , an area of the Altstadt district of Zürich, Switzerland * City, Vale of Glamorgan , a village in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales * City, Powys , a hamlet in Powys, Wales, in the United Kingdom * City, Australian Capital Territory , the central business district of Canberra, Australia * City of London , the historic core and chief financial district of London, more usually termed "The City" but sometimes written on maps as "City" See also: City University (other) PUBLICATIONS * City (novel) , a 1952 novel by Clifford D
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Human Settlement
In geography , statistics and archaeology , a SETTLEMENT, LOCALITY or POPULATED PLACE is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas . Settlements may include hamlets , villages , towns and cities . A settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by a particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling , settlements are "a city, town, village ghost or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work." A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads , enclosures , field systems , boundary banks and ditches , ponds , parks and woods , wind and water mills , manor houses , moats and churches . The oldest remains that have been found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud and branches around 17,000 BC at the Ohalo site (now underwater) near the edge of the Sea of Galilee . The Natufians built houses, also in the Levant , around 10,000 BC. Remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture
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Housing
HOUSING refers to houses or buildings collectively; accommodation of people; planning or provision of accommodation by an authority; and related meanings. The social issue is of ensuring that members of society have a home in which to live, whether this is a house , or some other kind of dwelling , lodging , or shelter . Many governments have an administrative section that deals with housing, for example the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development , Housing Development Board in Singapore and Housing Authority in Hong Kong . CONTENTS * 1 Macroeconomy and housing * 2 Informal housing * 2.1 Informal housing in developing countries * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MACROECONOMY AND HOUSINGPrevious research shows that housing price is affected by the macroeconomy. Financial crises, for example, usually reduce the price of housing. INFORMAL HOUSING Informal housing settlement in Soweto , South Africa The term informal housing can include any form of shelter or settlement (or lack thereof) which is illegal, falls outside of government control or regulation, or is not afforded protection by the state. As such, the informal housing industry is part of the informal sector
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Transportation
TRANSPORT or TRANSPORTATION is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport
Modes of transport
include air , rail , road , water , cable , pipeline and space . The field can be divided into infrastructure , vehicles and operations . Transport
Transport
is important because it enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilizations . Transport
Transport
infrastructure consists of the fixed installations including roads , railways , airways , waterways , canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports , railway stations , bus stations , warehouses , trucking terminals, refueling depots (including fueling docks and fuel stations ) and seaports . Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles , bicycles , buses , trains , trucks , people , helicopters , watercraft , spacecraft and aircraft . Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities, and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode. Passenger
Passenger
transport may be public , where operators provide scheduled services, or private
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