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Cistercians
A CISTERCIAN is a member of the CISTERCIAN ORDER (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/ , abbreviated as OCIST or SOCIST (Latin : (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns . They are variously called the BERNARDINES, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
), or the WHITE MONKS, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cucculas worn by the Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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Serfdom
SERFDOM is the status of many peasants under feudalism , specifically relating to manorialism . It was a condition of bondage , which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century. Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land. In return they were entitled to protection, justice, and the right to cultivate certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also in his mines and forests and to labor to maintain roads. The manor formed the basic unit of feudal society, and the lord of the manor and the villeins , and to a certain extent serfs, were bound legally: by taxation in the case of the former, and economically and socially in the latter
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Dijon
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. DIJON (French pronunciation: ( listen )) is a city in eastern France
France
, capital of the Côte-d\'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
region. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic
Neolithic
period . Dijon
Dijon
later became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon
Lyon
to Paris. The province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries and Dijon
Dijon
was a place of tremendous wealth and power, one of the great European centres of art, learning and science
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Burgundy (region)
BURGUNDY (French: BOURGOGNE, IPA: ( listen )) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians , an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. Historically, "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries . Beginning 1 January 2016, the name Burgundy
Burgundy
refers to a specific French political entity that is part of the new administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
, an entity comprising four departments, Côte-d\'Or , Saône-et-Loire
Saône-et-Loire
, Yonne , and Nièvre
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Ale
ALE is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops . As with most beers, ale typically has a bittering agent to balance the sweetness of the malt and act as a preservative. Ale
Ale
was originally bittered with gruit , a mixture of herbs or spices boiled in the wort before fermentation. Later, hops replaced gruit as the bittering agent
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Protestant Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism
German mysticism
Start of the
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Lithuania
Coordinates : 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 LITHUANIA (/ˌlɪθuːˈeɪniə/ ( listen ), Lithuanian : Lietuva ), officially the REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe
Europe
. One of the three Baltic states
Baltic states
, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea , to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus
Belarus
to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave ) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017 , and its capital and largest city is Vilnius
Vilnius
. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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Way Of St. James
The CAMINO DE SANTIAGO ( Latin
Latin
: Peregrinatio Compostellana, Galician : Camiño de Santiago), also known by the English names WAY OF ST. JAMES, ST. JAMES\'S WAY, ST. JAMES\'S PATH, ST. JAMES\'S TRAIL, ROUTE OF SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA, and ROAD TO SANTIAGO, is the name of any of the pilgrimage routes, known as pilgrim ways , to the shrine of the apostle St. James the Great in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain
Spain
, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried. Many follow its routes as a form of spiritual path or retreat for their spiritual growth. It is also popular with hiking and cycling enthusiasts as well as organized tours
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Coat Of Arms
A COAT OF ARMS is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield ), surcoat , or tabard . The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters , crest , and motto . A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person , family (except in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
), state, organisation or corporation
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Medieval Architecture
MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE is architecture common in the Middle Ages . CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Religious architecture * 1.2 Military architecture * 1.3 Civic architecture * 2 Styles * 2.1 Pre-Romanesque * 2.2 Romanesque * 2.3 Gothic * 3 Regions * 3.1 Central Europe * 3.2 Scandinavia * 3.3 Kievan Rus * 4 See also * 5 External links * 6 Further reading TYPES Cloisters of Mont Saint-Michel , Normandy, France. RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTUREThe Latin cross plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave , transepts , and the altar stands at the east end (see Cathedral diagram
Cathedral diagram
)
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Metallurgy
METALLURGY is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements , their inter-metallic compounds , and their mixtures, which are called alloys . Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is distinguished from the craft of metalworking , although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is subdivided into ferrous metallurgy (also known as black metallurgy) and non-ferrous metallurgy (also known as colored metallurgy)
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Henry VIII Of England
HENRY VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch , succeeding his father, Henry VII . Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon
, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation , separating the Church of England from papal authority and appointing himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
. Despite his resulting excommunication , Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings. Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution , ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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French Revolution
The FRENCH REVOLUTION (French : Révolution française ) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire . The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, experienced violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
that rapidly brought many of its principles to Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution
Revolution
profoundly altered the course of modern history , triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies
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Secular Clergy
The term SECULAR CLERGY refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute . They are referred to also as diocesan priests , or sometimes (in the case of an archdiocese ) as archdiocesan clergy. CONTENTS * 1 Catholic Church
Catholic Church
* 2 Orthodox Church * 3 See also * 4 References CATHOLIC CHURCHIn the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the secular clergy are ordained ministers , such as deacons and priests , who do not belong to a religious institute. While regular clergy take religious vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience and follow the rule of life of the institute to which they belong, secular clergy do not take vows, and they live in the world at large (secularity ) rather than at a religious institute . Canon law makes specific demands on clergy, whether regular or secular, quite apart from the obligations consequent to religious vows
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Cluniac
The CLUNIAC REFORMS (also called the BENEDICTINE REFORM) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. The movement began within the Benedictine order at Cluny Abbey , founded in 910 by William I, Duke of Aquitaine (875–918).The reforms were largely carried out by Saint Odo (c. 878 – 942) and spread throughout France ( Burgundy
Burgundy
, Provence
Provence
, Auvergne , Poitou ), into England (the English Benedictine Reform ), and through much of Italy
Italy
and Spain
Spain

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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego Poland