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Cistercians
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/,[1] abbreviated as OCist or SOCist (Latin: (Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Bernard of Clairvaux
(though the term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland
Poland
and Lithuania), or the White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians
Cistercians
over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine
Benedictine
monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales
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Coat Of Arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters, crest, and motto
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Lithuania
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania
Lithuania
(/ˌlɪθjuˈeɪniə/ ( listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017[update], and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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Secular Clergy
The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute. They are referred to also as diocesan priests or sometimes, in the case of an archdiocese, as archdiocesan clergy.Contents1 Catholic Church 2 Orthodox Church 3 See also 4 ReferencesCatholic Church[edit] In the Catholic Church, the secular clergy are ordained ministers, such as deacons and priests, who do not belong to a religious institute. While regular clergy take religious vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience and follow the rule of life of the institute to which they belong, secular clergy do not take vows, and they live in the world at large (secularity) rather than at a religious institute. Canon law makes specific demands on clergy, whether regular or secular, quite apart from the obligations consequent to religious vows
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Way Of St. James
James
James
is a common French and English surname and an English given name: James
James
(name), the typically masculine first name James James
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Pilgrim
A pilgrim (from the Latin
Latin
peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place. Typically, this is a physical journey (often on foot) to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system. In the spiritual literature of Christianity, the concept of pilgrim and pilgrimage may refer to the experience of life in the world (considered as a period of exile) or to the inner path of the spiritual aspirant from a state of wretchedness to a state of beatitude.Contents1 History 2 Modern era 3 Notable pilgrims 4 In culture 5 See also 6 References 7 Literature 8 External linksHistory[edit] Pilgrims and the making of pilgrimages are common in many religions, including the faiths of ancient Egypt, Persia
Persia
in the Mithraic period, India, China, and Japan
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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Cluniac
The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform)[1] were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. The movement began within the Benedictine order at Cluny Abbey, founded in 910 by William I, Duke of Aquitaine (875–918).The reforms were largely carried out by Saint Odo
Saint Odo
(c
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Burgundy (region)
Burgundy
Burgundy
(French: Bourgogne, IPA: [buʁɡɔɲ] ( listen)) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France
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French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Henry VIII Of England
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII. Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement with the Pope on the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate the English Reformation, separating the Church of England from papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England
and dissolved convents and monasteries. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic
Catholic
theological teachings.[2] Domestically, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England
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Protestant Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Metallurgy
Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is used to separate metals from their ore . Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy
Metallurgy
is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement
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Medieval Architecture
Medieval architecture
Medieval architecture
is architecture common in the Middle Ages.Contents1 Types1.1 Religious architecture 1.2 Military architecture 1.3 Civic architecture2 Styles2.1 Pre-Romanesque 2.2 Romanesque 2.3 Gothic3 Regions3.1 Central Europe 3.2 Scandinavia 3.3 Kievan Rus4 See also 5 External links 6 Further readingTypes[edit]Cloisters of Mont Saint-Michel, Normandy, France.Religious architecture[edit] The Latin cross
Latin cross
plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave, transepts, and the altar stands at the east end (see Cathedral
Cathedral
diagram)
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Dijon
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Dijon
Dijon
(French pronunciation: [diʒɔ̃] ( listen))[a] is a city in eastern France, capital of the Côte-d'Or
Côte-d'Or
département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
region.[1] The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon
Dijon
date to the Neolithic
Neolithic
period. Dijon
Dijon
later became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon
Lyon
to Paris
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Ale
Ale
Ale
is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.[1][2] Historically, the term referred to a drink brewed without hops.[3] As with most beers, ale typically has a bittering agent to balance the malt and act as a preservative. Ale
Ale
was originally bittered with gruit, a mixture of herbs or spices boiled in the wort before fermentation
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