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Circumlunar Trajectory
A CIRCUMLUNAR TRAJECTORY, TRANS-LUNAR TRAJECTORY or LUNAR FREE RETURN is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon
Moon
, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set. BACKGROUNDThe first spacecraft to fly a circumlunar trajectory was Luna 3 . Circumlunar trajectories were also used by Apollo missions prior to lunar orbit insertion, to provide a free return to Earth in the event of a propulsion system malfunction on the way to the Moon. This was used on Apollo 13 , when an oxygen tank rupture necessitated return to Earth without firing the Service Module engine, although a number of course corrections using the Lunar Module descent engine were required to maintain this trajectory
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Encyclopedia Astronautica
The ENCYCLOPEDIA ASTRONAUTICA is a reference web site on space travel . A comprehensive catalog of vehicles , technology , astronauts , and flights, it includes information from most countries that have had an active rocket research program, from Robert Goddard to the NASA
NASA
Space shuttle to the Soviet Shuttle Buran . It is maintained by space enthusiast and author Mark Wade. He has been collecting such information for most of his life. SEE ALSO * Jonathan\'s Space Report * List of online encyclopedias REFERENCES * ^ "Astronautix.com Site Info". Alexa Internet
Alexa Internet
. Retrieved 2017-07-13. * ^ David J. Shayler (2001). Gemini - Steps to the Moon. Springer Science+Business Media . p. 386
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Trans-lunar Injection
A TRANS-LUNAR INJECTION (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon
Moon
. Typical lunar transfer trajectories approximate Hohmann transfers , although low-energy transfers have also been used in some cases, as with the Hiten
Hiten
probe. For short duration missions without significant perturbations from sources outside the Earth- Moon
Moon
system, a fast Hohmann transfer is typically more practical. A spacecraft performs TLI to begin a lunar transfer from a low circular parking orbit around Earth
Earth
. The large TLI burn , usually performed by a chemical rocket engine, increases the spacecraft's velocity, changing its orbit from a circular low Earth
Earth
orbit to a highly eccentric orbit
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Centaur (rocket Stage)
CENTAUR is a rocket stage designed for use as the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is currently used on the Atlas V
Atlas V
. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2 ) and liquid oxygen (LOX ), and has enabled the launch of some of NASA
NASA
's most important scientific missions over its 50-year history. Centaur was the brainchild of Karel J. "Charlie" Bossart (the man behind the Atlas ICBM) and Dr. Krafft A. Ehricke , both Convair employees. Their design was essentially a smaller version of the Atlas, with its concept of using lightweight "stainless steel balloon" tanks whose structural rigidity was provided solely by the pressure of the propellants within. To keep the tanks from collapsing prior to propellant loading, they were either kept in "stretch" or pressurized with nitrogen gas
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Gemini Program
2: * Gemini 8 * Gemini 9A
Gemini 9A
LAUNCH SITE(S) Cape Kennedy Air Force Station LC-19 VEHICLE INFORMATION VEHICLE TYPE Capsule CREW VEHICLE Gemini CREW CAPACITY 2 LAUNCH VEHICLE(S) * Titan II GLV *
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Outer Space
OUTER SPACE, or just SPACE, is the void that exists between celestial bodies , including Earth
Earth
. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium as well as electromagnetic radiation , magnetic fields , neutrinos , dust , and cosmic rays . The baseline temperature , as set by the background radiation from the Big Bang , is 2.7 kelvins (K) (−270.45 °C; −454.81 °F). Plasma with a number density of less than one hydrogen atom per cubic metre and a temperature of millions of kelvins in the space between galaxies accounts for most of the baryonic (ordinary) matter in outer space; local concentrations have condensed into stars and galaxies . In most galaxies, observations provide evidence that 90% of the mass is in an unknown form, called dark matter , which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces
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Spaceflight
SPACEFLIGHT (also written SPACE FLIGHT) is ballistic flight into or through outer space . Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the U.S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program , as well as the ongoing International Space Station . Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit , as well as satellites in orbit around Earth , such as communications satellites . These operate either by telerobotic control or are fully autonomous . Spaceflight is used in space exploration , and also in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications . Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories , reconnaissance satellites and other Earth observation satellites
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Zond Program
ZOND (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970. The first series, based on the 3MV planetary probe , was intended to gather information about nearby planets . The second series of test spacecraft, being a precursor to manned circumlunar loop flights, used a stripped-down variant of Soyuz spacecraft
Soyuz spacecraft
, consisting of the service and descent modules , but lacking the orbital module . The earth lifeforms in Zond 5 were first to travel around the moon and return to Earth
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Soyuz 7K-L1
The SOYUZ 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth
Earth
to circle the Moon
Moon
without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon
Moon
race . It was based on the Soyuz 7K-OK
Soyuz 7K-OK
with several components stripped out to reduce the vehicle weight. The most notable modifications included the removal of the orbital module (the orbital module was replaced by a support cone and a high-gain parabolic antenna) and a reserve parachute; and the addition of the gyro platform and star navigation sensors for the far space navigation. The spacecraft was capable of carrying two cosmonauts . In the beginning, there were serious reliability problems with the new Proton rocket
Proton rocket
, the Proton 7K-L1, and the similar new Soyuz spacecraft
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Spacecraft
A SPACECRAFT is a vehicle, or machine designed to fly in outer space . Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications , earth observation , meteorology , navigation , space colonization , planetary exploration , and transportation of humans and cargo . On a sub-orbital spaceflight , a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit . For orbital spaceflights , spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies . Spacecraft used for human spaceflight carry people on board as crew or passengers from start or on orbit (space stations ) only, whereas those used for robotic space missions operate either autonomously or telerobotically . Robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes . Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a planetary body are artificial satellites
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Far Side Of The Moon
The FAR SIDE OF THE MOON, sometimes figuratively known as the DARK SIDE OF THE MOON, is the hemisphere of the Moon
Moon
that always faces away from Earth
Earth
. The far side's terrain is rugged, with a multitude of impact craters and relatively few flat lunar maria . It has one of the largest craters in the Solar System
Solar System
, the South Pole–Aitken basin . Although both sides of the moon experience two weeks of sunlight followed by two weeks of night, the far side is sometimes called the "dark side of the Moon," with "dark" meaning "unknown" rather than lack of light. About 18% of the far side is occasionally visible from Earth
Earth
due to libration . The remaining 82% remained unobserved until 1959, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
's Luna 3 space probe photographed it
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