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Circle Of Latitude
A CIRCLE OF LATITUDE on the Earth
Earth
is an abstract east –west circle connecting all locations around the Earth
Earth
(ignoring elevation) at a given latitude . Circles of latitude are often called PARALLELS because they are parallel to each other – that is, any two circles are always the same distance apart. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude . Circles of latitude are unlike circles of longitude, which all are great circles with the centre of Earth
Earth
in the middle, as the circles of latitude get smaller as the distance from the Equator
Equator
increases. Their length can be calculated by a common sine or cosine function. The 60th circle of latitude is half as long as the equator (disregarding Earth's minor flattening by 0.3%). A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The SEA LEVEL DATUM OF 1929 was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude ) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada
Canada
. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level , the geoid , or any other equipotential surface
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Legenda (satellite System)
LEGENDA, or the MKRC LEGENDA SYSTEM, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites , which were nuclear powered . Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. SEE ALSO * P-700 Granit REFERENCES * ^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg
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OSGB36
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude
Latitude
and Longitude
Longitude
. It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books or government planning documents
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 REFERENCE SYSTEM also known as the Krasovsky ellipsoid , is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian : Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system PZ-90 . It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders. CITATIONS AND NOTES * ^ slide 11, BorodkoREFERENCES * Borodko, Alexander, Topographic and geodetic provisions of the Russian Federation frontier delimitation and demarcation, Federal Agency of Geodesy
Geodesy
and Cartography, International Symposium on Land and River Boundaries Demarcation and Maintenance in Support of Borderland Development, Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand, 6–11 November 2006 This geodesy -related article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("EUROPEAN DATUM 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks . BACKGROUNDSome of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany
Germany
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Belgium
Belgium
and France
France
, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe
Western Europe

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Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
The QUASI-ZENITH SATELLITE SYSTEM (QZSS) is a three-satellite regional time transfer system in development and the satellite-based augmentation system for the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System
that would be receivable within Japan
Japan
. The first satellite "Michibiki" was launched on 11 September 2010. Full operational status was expected by 2013. In March 2013, Japan's Cabinet Office announced the expansion of the Quasi- Zenith
Zenith
Satellite System from three satellites to four. The $526 million contract with Mitsubishi Electric
Mitsubishi Electric
for the construction of three satellites is slated for launch before the end of 2017. The basic four-satellite system is planned to be operational in 2018
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Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
The INDIAN REGIONAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (IRNSS) with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Hindi and many other Indian languages, which also stands for NAVigation with Indian Constellation ) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. It covers India
India
and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension. The system at-present consist of a constellation of 7 satellites, with two additional satellites on ground as stand-by. The constellation is already in orbit and system is expected to be operational from early 2018 after a system check. NAVIC will provide two levels of service, the 'standard positioning service' will be open for civilian use, and a 'restricted service' (an encrypted one) for authorized users (including military)
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Global Positioning System
The GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS), originally NAVSTAR GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States
United States
Air Force . It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth
Earth
where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS
GPS
satellites. The GPS
GPS
does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS
GPS
positioning information. The GPS
GPS
provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world
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Glonass
GLONASS
GLONASS
(Russian : ГЛОНАСС, IPA: ; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service . It provides an alternative to GPS
GPS
and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS
GPS
devices say that adding GLONASS
GLONASS
made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where the view to some GPS
GPS
satellites is obscured by buildings
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BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
The BEIDOü NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM (BDS, simplified Chinese : 北斗卫星导航系统; traditional Chinese : 北斗衛星導航系統; pinyin : Běidǒu wèixīng dǎoháng xìtǒng) is a Chinese satellite navigation system. It consists of two separate satellite constellations – a limited test system that has been operating since 2000, and a full-scale global navigation system that is currently under construction. The first BeiDou system, officially called the BeiDou Satellite Navigation Experimental System (simplified Chinese : 北斗卫星导航试验系统; traditional Chinese : 北斗衛星導航試驗系統; pinyin : Běidǒu wèixīng dǎoháng shìyàn xìtǒng) and also known as BeiDou-1, consists of three satellites and offers limited coverage and applications. It has been offering navigation services, mainly for customers in China
China
and neighboring regions, since 2000
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Galileo (satellite Navigation)
GALILEO is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is currently being created by the European Union
European Union
(EU) through the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
(ESA) and the European GNSS Agency (GSA), headquartered in Prague
Prague
in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich
Munich
in Germany
Germany
and Fucino in Italy. The €5 billion project is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei

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GRS 80
GRS 80, or GEODETIC REFERENCE SYSTEM 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model . CONTENTS * 1 Geodesy
Geodesy
* 2 Defining features of GRS 80
GRS 80
* 3 References * 4 External links GEODESY Geodesy
Geodesy
, also called geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth , its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion , earth tides , and crustal motion) in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth
Earth
abstracted from its topographic features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc
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World Geodetic System
The WORLD GEODETIC SYSTEM (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography , geodesy , and navigation including GPS
GPS
. It comprises a standard coordinate system for the Earth
Earth
, a standard spheroidal reference surface (the datum or reference ellipsoid ) for raw altitude data, and a gravitational equipotential surface (the geoid ) that defines the nominal sea level. The latest revision is WGS 84 (also known as WGS 1984, EPSG:4326), established in 1984 and last revised in 2004. Earlier schemes included WGS 72, WGS 66, and WGS 60. WGS 84 is the reference coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System
Global Positioning System

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East
EAST is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass . It is the opposite direction from west . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Navigation
Navigation
* 3 Cultural * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word east comes from Middle English
Middle English
est, from Old English
Old English
ēast, which itself comes from the Proto-Germanic *aus-to- or *austra- "east, toward the sunrise", from Proto-Indo-European *aus- "to shine," or "dawn". This is similar to Old High German
Old High German
*ōstar "to the east", Latin
Latin
aurora "dawn", and Greek ēōs or heōs. Ēostre , a Germanic goddess of dawn, might have been a personification of both dawn and the cardinal points. NAVIGATIONBy convention , the right hand side of a map is east
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Great Circle
A GREAT CIRCLE, also known as an ORTHODROME, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere. A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on any given sphere. Any diameter of any great circle coincides with a diameter of the sphere, and therefore all great circles have the same center and circumference as each other. This special case of a circle of a sphere is in opposition to a small circle, that is, the intersection of the sphere and a plane that does not pass through the center. Every circle in Euclidean 3-space is a great circle of exactly one sphere. For most pairs of points on the surface of a sphere, there is a unique great circle through the two points. The exception is a pair of antipodal points, for which there are infinitely many great circles. The minor arc of a great circle between two points is the shortest surface-path between them
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