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Circle Of Latitude
A circle of latitude on Earth
Earth
is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth
Earth
(ignoring elevation) at a given latitude. Circles of latitude are often called parallels because they are parallel to each other; that is, any two circles are always the same distance apart. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. Circles of latitude are unlike circles of longitude, which are all great circles with the centre of Earth
Earth
in the middle, as the circles of latitude get smaller as the distance from the Equator
Equator
increases. Their length can be calculated by a common sine or cosine function. The 60th parallel north
60th parallel north
or south is half as long as the Equator
Equator
(disregarding Earth's minor flattening by 0.3%)
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Geodesy
Geodesy
Geodesy
( /dʒiːˈɒdɪsi/)[1], also known as geodetics, is the science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties—its geometric shape, its orientation in space, and its gravity field—as well as how they change over time.[2] Geodynamical phenomena include crustal motion, tides, and polar motion, which can be studied by designing global and national control networks, applying space and terrestrial techniques, and relying on datums and coordinate systems.Contents1 Definition 2 History 3
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ED50
ED50
ED50
("European Datum 1950") is a geodetic datum which was defined after World War II
World War II
for the international connection of geodetic networks. Background[edit] Some of the important battles of World War II
World War II
were fought on the borders of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium
Belgium
and France, and the mapping of these countries had incompatible latitude and longitude positioning. This led to the setting up of ED50
ED50
as a consistent mapping datum for much of Western Europe. It was, and still is, used in much of Western Europe
Western Europe
apart from Great Britain, Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland, which have their own datums. It used the International Ellipsoid of 1924 ("Hayford-Ellipsoid" of 1909) (radius of the Earth's equator 6378.388 km, flattening 1/297, both exact)
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GLONASS
GLONASS
GLONASS
(Russian: ГЛОНАСС, IPA: [ɡɫɐˈnas]; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration Globalnaya navigatsionnaya sputnikovaya sistema), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service. It provides an alternative to GPS and is the second navigational system in operation with global coverage and of comparable precision. Manufacturers of GPS
GPS
navigation devices say that adding GLONASS
GLONASS
made more satellites available to them, meaning positions can be fixed more quickly and accurately, especially in built-up areas where the view to some GPS
GPS
satellites is obscured by buildings.[1][2][3] Development of GLONASS
GLONASS
began in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1976
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BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
BeiDou Navigation Satellite System
(BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system. It consists of two separate satellite constellations. The first BeiDou system, officially called the BeiDou Satellite Navigation Experimental System and also known as BeiDou-1, consists of three satellites which since 2000 has offered limited coverage and navigation services, mainly for users in China
China
and neighboring regions
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Galileo (satellite Navigation)
Galileo
Galileo
is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union
European Union
(EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA),[3] headquartered in Prague
Prague
in the Czech Republic,[4] with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen
Oberpfaffenhofen
near Munich
Munich
in Germany
Germany
and Fucino
Fucino
in Italy. The €5 billion project[5] is named after the Italian astronomer Galileo
Galileo
Galilei
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Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System
(IRNSS) with an operational name of NAVIC ("sailor" or "navigator" in Sanskrit, Hindi and many other Indian languages, which also stands for NAVigation with Indian Constellation[4]) is an autonomous regional satellite navigation system, that provides accurate real-time positioning and timing services. It covers India
India
and a region extending 1,500 km (930 mi) around it, with plans for further extension
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Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
The Quasi- Zenith
Zenith
Satellite System (QZSS) (or Juntencho eisei shisutemu (準天頂衛星システム) in Japanese) is a project of the Japanese government for the development of a four-satellite regional time transfer system and a satellite-based augmentation system for the United States
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Legenda (satellite System)
Legenda, or the MKRC Legenda system, is a Soviet satellite targeting system mated to the SS-N-19
SS-N-19
missile. It consisted of the US-P SIGINT satellites and the US-A Radar Ocean reconnaissance satellites, which were nuclear powered.[1] Legenda is now believed to be non-functional after the US-A sats were deactivated. See also[edit]P-700 GranitReferences[edit]^ Brian Harvey The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program: 50 Years After 2007 "The US P (“P” for “passive”; industry code of 11F120) program began with Cosmos 699 in 1974, becoming operational as the Legenda system in 1978. US P5 are built by the Arsenal Design Bureau in St. Petersburg. Thirty-six were launched .. Russian reconnaissance satellitesIMINTPhotographicYantar Zenit Orlets AlmazElectro-opticalAraks Arkon Enisei Kobalt PersonaSIGINTELINTTselina-2 LianaMASINTSecondary MissionOko US-KMO EKSKosmosThis Soviet Union–related article is a stub
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Sea Level Datum Of 1929
The Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was the vertical control datum established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America by the General Adjustment of 1929. The datum was used to measure elevation (altitude) above, and depression (depth) below, mean sea level (MSL). Mean sea level
Mean sea level
was measured at 26 tide gauges: 21 in the United States and 5 in Canada. The datum was defined by the observed heights of mean sea level at the 26 tide gauges and by the set of elevations of all bench marks resulting from the adjustment. The adjustment required a total of 66,315 miles (106,724 km) of leveling with 246 closed circuits and 25 circuits at sea level. Since the Sea Level Datum of 1929
Sea Level Datum of 1929
was a hybrid model, it was not a pure model of mean sea level, the geoid, or any other equipotential surface
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OSGB36
The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid reference
Grid reference
system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude. It is often called British National Grid (BNG).[1][2] The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers
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SK-42 Reference System
The SK-42 reference system also known as the Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid, is a coordinate system established in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1942 as Systema koordinat (Russian: Система координат 1942 года), and provides parameters which are linked to the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system
Cartesian coordinate system
PZ-90. It was used in geodetic calculations, notably in military mapping and determining state borders.[1] The Krasovsky 1940 ellipsoid uses a semi-major axis (equatorial radius) a of 6,378,245 m, and an inverse flattening 1/f of 298.3.[2]:220 Citations and notes[edit]^ slide 11, Borodko ^ Office, United States Naval Observatory Nautical Almanac; Office, Great Britain Nautical Almanac (2005). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
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GRS 80
GRS 80, or Geodetic Reference System 1980, is a geodetic reference system consisting of a global reference ellipsoid and a gravity field model.Contents1 Geodesy 2 Defining features of GRS 80 3 References 4 External linksGeodesy[edit] Geodesy
Geodesy
is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, its gravitational field and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion, earth tides, and crustal motion) in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth
Earth
abstracted from its topographic features. It is an idealized equilibrium surface of sea water, the mean sea level surface in the absence of currents, air pressure variations etc. and continued under the continental masses. The geoid, unlike the ellipsoid, is irregular and too complicated to serve as the computational surface on which to solve geometrical problems like point positioning
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Map
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space, real or imagined, without regard to context or scale, such as in brain mapping, DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping. The space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or even more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables. Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin
Latin
Mappa mundi, wherein mappa meant napkin or cloth and mundi the world
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World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System
World Geodetic System
(WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and navigation including GPS
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North American Vertical Datum Of 1988
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
(NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States
United States
of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988. NAVD 88 was established in 1991 by the minimum-constraint adjustment of geodetic leveling observations in Canada, the United States, and Mexico. It held fixed the height of the primary tidal bench mark, referenced to the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 local mean sea level height value, at Rimouski, Quebec, Canada
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