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Cinnamomum Camphora
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum
camphora (commonly known as camphor tree, camphorwood or camphor laurel) is a large evergreen tree that grows up to 20–30 m (66–98 ft) tall.[1] The leaves have a glossy, waxy appearance and smell of camphor when crushed. In spring, it produces bright green foliage with masses of small white flowers. It produces clusters of black, berry-like fruit around 1 cm (0.39 in) in diameter
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Cinnamomum Oliveri
Cinnamomum oliveri is a rainforest tree growing at the eastern coastal parts of Australia. It grows from the Illawarra district (34° S) in New South Wales to Cape York Peninsula at the northern tip of Australia. The southern most limit of natural distribution is on the volcanic cliffs above the town of Gerroa and nearby on the sand in rainforest behind Seven Mile Beach, New South Wales. Cinnamomum oliveri, has several common names, such as the camphorwood, Oliver's sassafras, black sassafras and cinnamonwood. It is a medium to large tree to around 30 metres tall and 75 cm in diameter.Contents1 Habitat 2 Description2.1 Trunk, bark and leaves 2.2 Flowers, fruit and germination3 Uses 4 Gallery 5 ReferencesHabitat[edit] Common in warm temperate rainforest areas on sedimentary soils in cool mountain situations. But also seen in subtropical rainforest. Description[edit] Trunk, bark and leaves[edit] The trunk is cylindrical or occasionally flanged
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Smokeless Gunpowder
Smokeless powder
Smokeless powder
is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Steam Distillation
Steam
Steam
distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. It once was a popular laboratory method for purification of organic compounds, but has become obsolete by vacuum distillation. Steam
Steam
distillation remains important in certain industrial sectors.[1] Many organic compounds tend to decompose at high sustained temperatures. Separation by distillation at the normal (1 atmosphere) boiling points is not an option, so water or steam is introduced into the distillation apparatus. The water vapor carries small amounts of the vaporized compounds to the condensation flask, where the condensed liquid phase separates, allowing easy collection. This process effectively enables distillation at lower temperatures, reducing the deterioration of the desired products
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Chemotype
A chemotype (sometimes chemovar) is a chemically distinct entity in a plant or microorganism, with differences in the composition of the secondary metabolites. Minor genetic and epigenetic changes with little or no effect on morphology or anatomy may produce large changes in the chemical phenotype. Chemotypes are often defined by the most abundant chemical produced by that individual and the concept has been useful in work done by chemical ecologists and natural product chemists. With respect to plant biology, the term "chemotype" was first coined by Dr
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Linalool
Linalool
Linalool
(/lɪˈnæloʊˌɒl, laɪ-, -loʊˌɔːl, -ləˌwɒl, -ləˌwoʊl/ or /ˌlɪnəˈluːl/[1][2]) refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many flowers and spice plants. These have multiple commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness)
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Nerolidol
Nerolidol, also known as peruviol, is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers.[1] There are two isomers of nerolidol, cis and trans, which differ in the geometry about the central double bond. Nerolidol
Nerolidol
is present in neroli, ginger, jasmine, lavender, tea tree, Cannabis sativa, and lemon grass, and is a dominant scent compound in Brassavola nodosa.[2] The aroma of nerolidol is woody and reminiscent of fresh bark. It is used as a flavoring agent and in perfumery. It is also used in non-cosmetic products such as detergents and cleansers.[3] It is also currently under testing as a skin penetration enhancer for the transdermal delivery of therapeutic drugs.[4] Additionally, it is known for various biological activities include antioxidant, anti fungal, anticancer, and antimicrobial activity.[3] It is one of several organic volatiles produced by the A
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Safrole
Safrole is a phenylpropene. It is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid typically extracted from the root-bark or the fruit of sassafras plants in the form of sassafras oil (although commercially available culinary sassafras oil is usually devoid of safrole due to a rule passed by the FDA in 1960), or is synthesized from catechol[2] or other related methylenedioxy compounds. It is the principal component of brown camphor oil, and is found in small amounts in a wide variety of plants, where it functions as a natural pesticide. Ocotea cymbarum oil made from Ocotea pretiosa,[3] a plant growing in Brazil, and sassafras oil made from Sassafras albidum,[4] a tree growing in eastern North America, are the main natural sources for safrole
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Borneol
Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene derivative. The hydroxyl group in this compound is placed in an endo position. There are two different enantiomers of borneol. Both d-(+)-borneol and l-(–)-borneol are found in nature.Contents1 Reactions 2 Natural occurrences 3 Uses3.1 Use in organic chemistry4 Toxicology 5 Derivatives 6 Notes and references 7 External linksReactions[edit] Borneol is easily oxidized to the ketone (camphor). One historical name for borneol is Borneo camphor which explains the name
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Insect Repellent
An insect repellent (also commonly called "bug spray") is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects (and arthropods in general) from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect
Insect
repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne (and other arthropod-bourne) diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, river blindness and West Nile fever. Pest animals commonly serving as vectors for disease include insects such as flea, fly, and mosquito; and the arachnid tick[citation needed]. Some insect repellents are insecticides (bug killers), but most simply discourage insects and send them flying or crawling away
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Indochina
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia. The name refers to the lands historically within the cultural influence of India
India
and China, and physically bound by the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
in the west and China
China
in the north. It corresponds to the present-day areas of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, and (variably) peninsular Malaysia and Singapore
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Celluloid
Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents. Generally considered the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856[1] and as Xylonite in 1869, before being registered as Celluloid
Celluloid
in 1870. Celluloid
Celluloid
is easily molded and shaped, and it was first widely used as an ivory replacement. The main use was in movie and photography film industries, which used only celluloid film stock prior to the adoption of acetate safety film in the 1950s
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Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] ( listen)), officially the Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Special
Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Along with Macau, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and several other major cities in Guangdong, the territory forms a core part of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
metropolitan region, the most populated area in the world
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Adelaide, South Australia
Adelaide
Adelaide
(/ˈædəleɪd/ ( listen) AD-ə-layd)[8] is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2016, Adelaide
Adelaide
had an estimated resident population of 1,324,279.[1] Adelaide
Adelaide
is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide
Adelaide
is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide
Adelaide
Plains between the Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent
and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges
Mount Lofty Ranges
which surround the city
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Turramurra Railway Station
Turramurra railway station is located on the North Shore line, serving the Sydney suburb of Turramurra. It is served by Sydney Trains T1 North Shore line services.Contents1 History 2 Platforms & services 3 Transport links 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Turramurra station opened on 1 January 1890 as Eastern Road when the North Shore line opened from Hornsby to St Leonards. It was renamed Turramurra on 30 August 1890.[1] The present island platform and station building were completed in 1900.[2] In 1977, a precast concrete footbridge was installed
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