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Cinematographer
A CINEMATOGRAPHER or DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film , television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image. The study and practice of this field is referred to as cinematography . Some filmmakers say that the cinematographer is just the chief over the camera and lighting, and the director of photography is the chief over all the photography components of film, including framing, costumes, makeup, and lighting, as well as the assistant of the post producer for color correction and grading. The cinematographer selects the camera, film stock , lens , filters , etc., to realize the scene in accordance with the intentions of the director . Relations between the cinematographer and director vary; in some instances the director will allow the cinematographer complete independence; in others, the director allows little to none, even going so far as to specify exact camera placement and lens selection. Such a level of involvement is not common once the director and cinematographer have become comfortable with each other; the director will typically convey to the cinematographer what is wanted from a scene visually, and allow the cinematographer latitude in achieving that effect
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Camera Crew
A FILM CREW is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture . The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is also separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights . A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film
Film
crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development, production and distribution. Within the production stage there are also three clearly defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases. Distinctions are also made between above-the-line personnel (such as the director, the screenwriter and the producers) who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, and the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage
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Stealth (film)
STEALTH is a 2005 science fiction action film starring Josh Lucas
Josh Lucas
, Jessica Biel , Jamie Foxx , Sam Shepard , Joe Morton
Joe Morton
and Richard Roxburgh . The film, an international co-production between the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, was directed by Rob Cohen , director of The Fast and the Furious and xXx . The film follows three top fighter pilots as they join a project to develop an automated robotic stealth aircraft. Released on July 29, 2005 by Columbia Pictures , the film cost $135 million to make, but was panned by critics, and was a box office bomb making only $76 million worldwide, one of the worst losses in cinematic history . CONTENTS * 1 Plot * 2 Cast * 3 Production * 4 Featured technologies * 5 Litigation * 6 Soundtrack * 7 Release * 7.1 Box office * 7.2 Critical response * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links PLOT This article's plot summary MAY BE TOO LONG OR EXCESSIVELY DETAILED . Please help improve it by removing unnecessary details and making it more concise
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Nimitz-class Aircraft Carrier
The NIMITZ-CLASS supercarriers are a class of ten nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the United States Navy
United States Navy
. The lead ship of the class is named after World War II
World War II
United States Pacific Fleet commander Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz , the U.S. Navy's last fleet admiral . With an overall length of 1,092 ft (333 m) and full-load displacement of over 100,000 long tons , they have been the largest warships built and in service. Instead of the gas turbines or diesel-electric systems used for propulsion on many modern warships, the carriers use two A4W pressurized water reactors which drive four propeller shafts and can produce a maximum speed of over 30 knots (56 km/h) and maximum power of around 260,000 shp (190 MW). As a result of the use of nuclear power, the ships are capable of operating for over 20 years without refueling and are predicted to have a service life of over 50 years. They are categorized as nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and are numbered with consecutive hull numbers between CVN-68 and CVN-77. All ten carriers were constructed by Newport News Shipbuilding Company in Virginia
Virginia
. USS Nimitz , the lead ship of the class, was commissioned on 3 May 1975, and USS George H.W. Bush
USS George H.W. Bush
, the tenth and last of the class, was commissioned on 10 January 2009
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Uss Abraham Lincoln (cvn 72)
ABRAHAM (Hebrew : אַבְרָהָם, Modern Avraham, Tiberian ʾAḇrāhām, Arabic
Arabic
: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally AVRAM or ABRAM, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions . In Judaism he is the founding father of the Covenant , the special relationship between the Jewish people and God
God
; in Christianity, he is the prototype of all believers, Jewish or Gentile; and in Islam he is seen as a link in the chain of prophets that begins with Adam
Adam
and culminates in Muhammad
Muhammad
. The narrative in Genesis revolves around the themes of posterity and land. Abraham
Abraham
is called by God
God
to leave the house of his father Terah and settle in the land originally given to Canaan , but which God
God
now promises to Abraham
Abraham
and his progeny. Various candidates are put forward who might inherit the land after Abraham, and while promises are made to Ishmael about founding a great nation, Isaac
Isaac
, his son by his half-sister Sarah
Sarah
, inherits the promises to Abraham
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Film Crew
A FILM CREW is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture . The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is also separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights . A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film
Film
crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development, production and distribution. Within the production stage there are also three clearly defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases. Distinctions are also made between above-the-line personnel (such as the director, the screenwriter and the producers) who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, and the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage
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Film
A FILM, also called a MOVIE, MOTION PICTURE, THEATRICAL FILM, or PHOTOPLAY, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon . This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry . A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera ; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation ; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects . The word "CINEMA", short for cinematography , is often used to refer to the industry of films and filmmaking or to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. The adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates . Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution, and exhibition from start to finish
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Cinematography
CINEMATOGRAPHY is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation , either electronically by means of an image sensor , or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock . Typically, a lens is used to repeatedly focus the light reflected from objects into real images on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a questioned exposure , creating multiple images. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel , which is electronically processed and stored in a video file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is a series of invisible latent images on the film stock, which are later chemically "developed " into a visible image . The images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected onto a screen, creating the illusion of motion. Cinematography finds uses in many fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes and mass communication
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Film Stock
FILM STOCK is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation . It is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast and resolution of the film. The emulsion will gradually darken if left exposed to light, but the process is too slow and incomplete to be of any practical use. Instead, a very short exposure to the image formed by a camera lens is used to produce only a very slight chemical change, proportional to the amount of light absorbed by each crystal. This creates an invisible latent image in the emulsion, which can be chemically developed into a visible photograph . In addition to visible light, all films are sensitive to X-rays
X-rays
and high-energy particles . Most are at least slightly sensitive to invisible ultraviolet (UV) light. Some special-purpose films are sensitive into the infrared (IR) region of the spectrum . In black-and-white photographic film there is usually one layer of silver salts. When the exposed grains are developed, the silver salts are converted to metallic silver, which blocks light and appears as the black part of the film negative . Color
Color
film has at least three sensitive layers
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Photographic Lens
A CAMERA LENS (also known as PHOTOGRAPHIC LENS or PHOTOGRAPHIC OBJECTIVE) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically. There is no major difference in principle between a lens used for a still camera , a video camera , a telescope , a microscope , or other apparatus, but the detailed design and construction are different. A lens might be permanently fixed to a camera, or it might be interchangeable with lenses of different focal lengths , apertures , and other properties. While in principle a simple convex lens will suffice, in practice a compound lens made up of a number of optical lens elements is required to correct (as much as possible) the many optical aberrations that arise. Some aberrations will be present in any lens system. It is the job of the lens designer to balance these and produce a design that is suitable for photographic use and possibly mass production
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Filter (photography)
In photography and videography , a FILTER is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path. The filter can be of a square or oblong shape and mounted in a holder accessory, or, more commonly, a glass or plastic disk in a metal or plastic ring frame, which can be screwed into the front of or clipped onto the camera lens . Filters modify the images recorded. Sometimes they are used to make only subtle changes to images; other times the image would simply not be possible without them. In monochrome photography coloured filters affect the relative brightness of different colours; red lipstick may be rendered as anything from almost white to almost black with different filters. Others change the colour balance of images, so that photographs under incandescent lighting show colours as they are perceived, rather than with a reddish tinge. There are filters that distort the image in a desired way, diffusing an otherwise sharp image, adding a starry effect, etc. Linear and circular polarising filters reduce oblique reflections from non-metallic surfaces. Many filters absorb part of the light available, necessitating longer exposure . As the filter is in the optical path, any imperfections—non-flat or non-parallel surfaces, reflections (minimised by optical coating), scratches, dirt—affect the image. There is no universal standard naming system for filters
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Film Director
A FILM DIRECTOR is a person who directs the making of a film . Generally, a film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members , production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film. The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers , film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films
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Barry Sonnenfeld
BARRY SONNENFELD (born April 1, 1953) is an American filmmaker and television director. He worked as cinematographer for the Coen brothers , then later he directed films such as The Addams Family and its sequel, Addams Family Values
Addams Family Values
along with the Men in Black trilogy , and the critically acclaimed Get Shorty . Sonnenfeld has also had four collaborations with Will Smith
Will Smith
. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Filmography * 3 Future projects * 4 References * 5 External links LIFE AND CAREERSonnenfeld was born and raised in New York City
New York City
, the son of Irene "Kelly" (Kellerman), an art teacher, and Sonny Sonnenfeld, a lighting salesman, educator, and architectural lighting designer. He was raised in a Jewish family. After he received his bachelor's degree from Hampshire College
Hampshire College
, he graduated from New York University
New York University
of Film School in 1978. He began working on pornographic films , before starting work as director of photography on the Oscar-nominated In Our Water (1982). Then Joel Coen and Ethan Coen hired him for Blood Simple (1985). This film began his collaboration with the Coen brothers
Coen brothers
, who used him for their next two pictures, Raising Arizona
Raising Arizona
(1987) and Miller\'s Crossing (1990)
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Coen Brothers
JOEL DAVID COEN (born November 29, 1954) and ETHAN JESSE COEN (born September 21, 1957), collectively referred to as the COEN BROTHERS, are American filmmakers . Their films span many genres and styles, which they frequently subvert or parody. Their best-reviewed works include _Fargo _ (1996), _ The Big Lebowski _ (1998), _No Country for Old Men _ (2007), _ A Serious Man _ (2009), _True Grit _ (2010), and _ Inside Llewyn Davis _ (2013). The brothers write, direct and produce their films jointly, although until _ The Ladykillers _ (2004) Joel received sole credit for directing and Ethan for producing. They often alternate top billing for their screenplays while sharing editing credits under the alias RODERICK JAYNES. They have been nominated for thirteen Academy Awards together, and individually for one award each, winning Best Original Screenplay for _Fargo_ and Best Picture , Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay for _No Country for Old Men_. The duo also won the Palme d\'Or for _ Barton Fink
Barton Fink
_ (1991) and were nominated for _Fargo_
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Jan De Bont
JAN DE BONT (born 22 October 1943) is a Dutch cinematographer , director and film producer . He is widely known for directing the 1994 action film Speed starring Keanu Reeves and Sandra Bullock and the disaster film Twister . As a director of photography, he has shot numerous blockbusters and genre films , including Cujo , Flesh and Blood , Die Hard , The Hunt for Red October and Basic Instinct . CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Directing * 3 Personal life * 4 Filmography * 5 Lost Godzilla project * 6 Collaborations * 7 See also * 8 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREERDe Bont was born to a Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
family in Eindhoven
Eindhoven
, Netherlands
Netherlands
, one of 17 children. His earliest work after studying at the Amsterdam Film Academy was with the Dutch avant garde director Adriaan Ditvoorst . He first came to fame in the Netherlands
Netherlands
as the cinematographer for the 1973 film Turkish Delight , directed by Paul Verhoeven , starring Rutger Hauer and Monique van de Ven . Since the early 1980s, he worked frequently in Hollywood
Hollywood
, often collaborating with directors including Verhoeven and John McTiernan
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Die Hard
_DIE HARD_ is a 1988 American action film directed by John McTiernan and written by Steven E. de Souza and Jeb Stuart . It follows off-duty New York City Police Department officer John McClane ( Bruce Willis ) as he takes on a group of highly organized criminals led by Hans Gruber ( Alan Rickman ), who perform a heist in a Los Angeles skyscraper under the guise of a terrorist attack using hostages, including McClane's wife Holly ( Bonnie Bedelia ), to keep the police at bay. It is based on Roderick Thorp 's 1979 novel _Nothing Lasts Forever _, the sequel to 1966's _The Detective _, which was adapted into a 1968 film of the same name that starred Frank Sinatra
Frank Sinatra
. Fox was therefore contractually obligated to offer Sinatra the lead role in _Die Hard_, but he turned it down. The studio then pitched the film to Arnold Schwarzenegger as a sequel to his 1985 action film _Commando _; he turned it down, as well, and the studio finally and reluctantly gave it to Willis, then known primarily as a comedic television actor. Made for $28 million, _Die Hard_ grossed over $140 million theatrically worldwide, and was given a positive reception from critics. The film turned Willis into an action star, became a metonym for an action film in which a lone hero fights overwhelming odds, and has been named one of the best action movies ever made
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