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Cicely
MYRRHIS ODORATA, with common names CICELY /ˈsɪsəli/ , SWEET CICELY, MYRRH, GARDEN MYRRH, and SWEET CHERVIL, is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the celery family Apiaceae
Apiaceae
. It is one of two accepted species in the genus MYRRHIS. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Distribution and habitat * 4 Cultivation and uses * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe genus name Myrrhis derives from the Greek word myrrhis , an aromatic oil from Asia. The Latin species name odorata means scented. DESCRIPTION Illustration of Myrrhis odorata Myrrhis odorata is a tall herbaceous perennial plant growing to 2 m tall, depending on circumstances. The leaves are fern-like, 2-4-pinnate, finely divided, feathery, up to 50 cm long, with whitish patches near the rachis. The plant is softly hairy and smells strongly of aniseed when crushed. The flowers are creamy-white, about 2–4 mm across, produced in large umbels
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Leaf
A LEAF is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem . The leaves and stem together form the shoot . Leaves are collectively referred to as FOLIAGE, as in "autumn foliage". Diagram of a simple leaf. * Apex * Midvein (Primary vein) * Secondary vein. * Lamina. * Leaf
Leaf
margin * Petiole * Bud * StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ , borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis . In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll , is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a BLOOM or BLOSSOM , is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank , as well as a unit of biodiversity , but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Herbaceous
HERBACEOUS PLANTS (in botanical use frequently simply HERBS) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground. Herbaceous plants may be annuals , biennials or perennials . Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed. Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots , a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems , such as bulbs , corms , stolons , rhizomes and tubers
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Perennial Plant
A PERENNIAL PLANT or simply PERENNIAL is a plant that lives for more than two years. The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials . The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials. Perennials, especially small flowering plants , that grow and bloom over the spring and summer, die back every autumn and winter, and then return in the spring from their rootstock , are known as HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS . However, depending on the rigors of local climate, a plant that is a perennial in its native habitat, or in a milder garden, may be treated by a gardener as an annual and planted out every year, from seed, from cuttings or from divisions
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Leaves
A LEAF is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem . The leaves and stem together form the shoot . Leaves are collectively referred to as FOLIAGE, as in "autumn foliage". Diagram of a simple leaf. * Apex * Midvein (Primary vein) * Secondary vein. * Lamina. * Leaf
Leaf
margin * Petiole * Bud * StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ , borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis . In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll , is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
, palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Taste
TASTE, GUSTATORY PERCEPTION, or GUSTATION is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the GUSTATORY SYSTEM. Taste
Taste
is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity , mostly on the tongue . Taste, along with smell (olfaction ) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis . The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. The tongue is covered with thousands of small bumps called papillae , which are visible to the naked eye. Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds. The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Wikispecies
WIKISPECIES is a wiki -based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation . Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species ; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public. Jimmy Wales
Jimmy Wales
stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is available under the GNU Free Documentation License
GNU Free Documentation License
and CC BY-SA 3.0 . Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to articles on individual species by April 2005
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Stace, C. A.
CLIVE ANTHONY STACE (born 1938) is a British botanist and botanical author. His academic career was based at the University of Leicester
University of Leicester
, where he held the post of Professor of Plant taxonomy . He is a past president of the Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland . In 2012 a newly described grass species, Brachypodium stacei (previously regarded as a form of purple false brome ), was named in his honour. He has also been responsible for a number of notable publications relating to the vascular plant flora of Britain and Ireland: * Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles * New Flora of the British Isles * Vice-county Census Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Great Britain He also wrote the student textbook Plant Taxonomy and Biosystematics . The standard author abbreviation STACE is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The ENCYCLOPæDIA BRITANNICA ELEVENTH EDITION (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia is now in the public domain , but the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Tens of thousands of its articles were copied directly into , where they still can be found
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Akvavit
AKVAVIT or AQUAVIT (/ˈɑːkwəviːt/ ; /ˈɑːkvəviːt/ ; also AKEVITT in Norwegian ) is a flavoured spirit that is principally produced in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
, where it has been produced since the 15th century. Akvavit
Akvavit
gets its distinctive flavour from spices and herbs , and the main spice should (according to the European Union
European Union
) be caraway or dill . It typically contains 40% alcohol by volume . The EU has established a minimum of 37.5% ABV for akvavit to be named as such
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