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Church Architecture
Church architecture
Church architecture
refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs, practices and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity
Christianity
to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony. These large, often ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village
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Architecture Of Cathedrals And Great Churches
The architecture of cathedrals, basilicas and abbey churches is characterised by the buildings' large scale and follows one of several branching traditions of form, function and style that all ultimately derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period. Cathedrals, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas, have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches. They also tend to display a higher level of contemporary architectural style and the work of accomplished craftsmen, and occupy a status both ecclesiastical and social that an ordinary parish church does not have. Such a cathedral or great church is generally one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, and a number of abbey churches are among the world's most renowned works of architecture
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Maximian
Maximian (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus;[9] c. 250 – c. July 310)[7] was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305. He was Caesar[1][2] from 285 to 286, then Augustus from 286[3] to 305.[4] He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian, whose political brain complemented Maximian's military brawn. Maximian established his residence at Trier but spent most of his time on campaign. In late 285, he suppressed rebels in Gaul known as the Bagaudae. From 285 to 288, he fought against Germanic tribes along the Rhine frontier. Together with Diocletian, he launched a scorched earth campaign deep into Alamannic territory in 288, temporarily relieving the Rhine provinces from the threat of Germanic invasion. The man he appointed to police the Channel shores, Carausius, rebelled in 286, causing the secession of Britain and northwestern Gaul. Maximian failed to oust Carausius, and his invasion fleet was destroyed by storms in 289 or 290
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Armenia
Coordinates: 40°N 45°E / 40°N 45°E / 40; 45 Armenia
Armenia
(/ɑːrˈmiːniə/ ( listen);[20] Armenian: Հայաստան, translit. Hayastan, IPA: [hɑjɑsˈtɑn]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Armenia
Armenia
(Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, translit. Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun, IPA: [hɑjɑstɑˈni hɑnɾɑpɛtutʰˈjun]), is a country in the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
region of Eurasia
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Synagogues
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/; from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly', Hebrew: בית כנסת‬ bet kenesset, 'house of assembly' or בית תפילה‬ bet tefila, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship. Synagogues have a large place for prayer (the main sanctuary) and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah study, called the בית מדרש‬ beth midrash "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh (the entire Hebrew Bible, including the Torah) reading, study and assembly; however, a synagogue is not necessary for worship. Halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews (a minyan) assemble. Worship can also be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together
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House Churches
A house church or home church is a label used to describe a group of Christians who regularly gather for worship in private homes. The group may be part of a larger Christian body, such as a parish, but some have been independent groups that see the house church as the primary form of Christian community. Sometimes these groups meet because the membership is small, and a home is the most appropriate place to assemble, as in the beginning phase of the British New Church Movement. Sometimes this meeting style is advantageous because the group is a member of a Christian congregation which is otherwise banned from meeting as is the case in China. Some recent Christian writers have supported the view that the Christian Church should meet in houses, and have based the operation of their communities around multiple small home meetings
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Paul The Apostle
Paul the Apostle (Latin: Paulus; Greek: Παῦλος, translit. Paũlus, Coptic: ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (Hebrew: שאול התרסי‎, translit. Sha'ūl ha-Tarsī; Greek: Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, translit. Saũlos Tarseús),[4][5][6] was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.[7] Paul is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age[8][9] and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe
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First Epistle To The Corinthians
The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Ancient Greek: Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to simply as First Corinthians and often written 1 Corinthians, is one of the Pauline epistles of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle says that Paul the Apostle and "Sosthenes our brother" wrote it to "the church of God which is at Corinth" 1 Cor.1:1–2 although the scholarly consensus holds that Sosthenes was the amanuensis who wrote down the text of the letter at Paul's direction.[1] Called "a masterpiece of pastoral theology",[2] it addresses various issues that had arisen in the Christian community at Corinth. This epistle contains some well-known phrases, including: "all things to all men" (9:22), "through a glass, darkly" (13:12), and "When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child" (13:11).Contents1 Authorship 2 Composition 3 Structure 4 Content 5 See also 6 References 7 Further re
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Priscilla And Aquila
Priscilla (/prɪˈsɪlə/ Greek: Πρίσκιλλα, Priskilla) and Aquila (/ˈækwɪlə/; Greek: Ἀκύλας, Akylas) were a first century Christian missionary married couple described in the New Testament and traditionally listed among the Seventy Disciples. They lived, worked, and traveled with the Apostle Paul, who described them as his "fellow workers in Christ Jesus" (Romans 16:3 NASB).[1] Priscilla and Aquila are described in the New Testament as providing a presence that strengthened the early Christian churches. Paul was generous in his recognition and acknowledgment of his indebtedness to them (Rom. 16:3-4). Together, they are credited with instructing Apollos, a major evangelist of the first century, and "[explaining] to him the way of God more accurately" (Acts 18:26). It is thought by some to be possible, in light of her apparent prominence, that Priscilla held the office of presbyter
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Dura Europos Church
The Dura-Europos church (also known as the Dura-Europos house church) is the earliest identified Christian house church.[1] It is located in Dura-Europos in Syria
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Dais
A dais or daïs (/ˈdeɪ.əs/ or /ˈdaɪ.əs/)[1] is any raised platform located either inside or outside a room or enclosure, often for dignified occupancy,[2] as at the front of a lecture hall or sanctuary. Historically, the dais was a part of the floor at the end of a medieval hall, raised a step above the rest of the room. On this the Master of the household or assembly (as it might be, the lord of the manor, Master of a College, Fraternity or Conventual house) dined with his senior associates and guests at the High Table, while the general company occupied the lower area of the room
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Baptistry
In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Old French baptisterie; Latin baptisterium; Greek βαπτιστήριον, 'bathing-place, baptistery', from βαπτίζειν, baptízein, 'to baptize') is the separate centrally planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. The baptistery may be incorporated within the body of a church or cathedral and be provided with an altar as a chapel. In the early Church, the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism was administered in the baptistery.Contents1 Design 2 History 3 Famous baptisteries 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDesign[edit]The Lateran Baptistery, Rome, 440Further information: Mathematics and architecture The sacramental importance and sometimes architectural splendor of the baptistery reflect the importance of baptism to Christians
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Diocletian
Diocletian (/ˌdaɪ.əˈkliːʃən/; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311),[3][5] was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' other surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus. Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively
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Galerius
Galerius (/ɡəˈlɛəriəs/; Latin: Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus;[12] c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.[13] During his reign he campaigned, aided by Diocletian, against the Sassanid Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 299. He also campaigned across the Danube against the Carpi, defeating them in 297 and 300
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Basilica Of The Holy Cross
The Kasagh Basilica (Քասաղի բազիլիկա),[1][2] formally known as the Holy Cross Church (Սուրբ Խաչ եկեղեցի, Surb Khach yekeghetsi), is an early medieval Armenian church in the town of Aparan in the Aragatsotn Province of Armenia. It is dated by scholars to the fourth or fifth century.[1][3][4] It was originally within the grounds of the Arsacid (Arshakuni) dynasty palace.[1][4] The church was partly restored in 1877.[3]Gallery[edit]The basilica in 2008View from west sideSee also[edit] List of the oldest churches References[edit]^ a b c Shakhkyan, G. (1986). "Քասաղի բազիլիկ [Kasagh basilica]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia Volume 12 (in Armenian). p. 419. ^ http://www.armeniaculture.am/am/Encyclopedia_hay_mshakuyti_hanragitaran_haykakan_vaghqristoneakan_chartarapetutyuny/page-5^ a b Thierry, Jean-Michel (1989). Armenian Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams
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Praetorian Guard
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors. During the era of the Roman Republic, the Praetorians served as a small escort force for high-ranking officials such as senators or provincial governors like Procurators. With the Republic's transition into the Roman Empire, however, the first emperor Augustus founded the Guard as his personal security detail. Although they continued to serve in this capacity for roughly three centuries, the Guard became notable for its intrigue and interference in Roman Politics, to the point of overthrowing emperors and proclaiming their successors
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