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Church Architecture
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches . It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion, partly by innovation and partly by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs, practices and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium , the Romanesque abbey churches , Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony. These large, often ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom , the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals , the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and often demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration. Buildings were at first adapted from those originally intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have often imitated religious architecture . In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete , has had an effect upon the design of churches
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Architecture Of Cathedrals And Great Churches
The ARCHITECTURE OF CATHEDRALS, BASILICAS AND ABBEY CHURCHES is characterised by the buildings' large scale and follows one of several branching traditions of form, function and style that all ultimately derive from the Early Christian architectural traditions established in the Constantinian period. Cathedrals in particular, as well as many abbey churches and basilicas , have certain complex structural forms that are found less often in parish churches . They also tend to display a higher level of contemporary architectural style and the work of accomplished craftsmen, and occupy a status both ecclesiastical and social that an ordinary parish church does not have. Such a cathedral or great church is generally one of the finest buildings within its region and is a focus of local pride. Many cathedrals and basilicas, and a number of abbey churches are among the world's most renowned works of architecture. These include St
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Netherlands
The NETHERLANDS (/ˈnɛðərləndz/ (_ listen ); Dutch : Nederland_ (_ listen ); Frisian : Nederlân_), also known informally as HOLLAND, is a densely populated country in Western Europe , also incorporating three island territories in the Caribbean . It is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . The European portion of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom , and Germany. The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam , Rotterdam , The Hague and Utrecht . Amsterdam is the country\'s capital , while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government . The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the world's largest outside east Asia. Utrecht is a central node for road and railway communications, commerce, and cultural events. "Netherlands" literally means "lower countries ", influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding one metre above sea level . Most of the areas below sea level are artificial
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St. Andrew Memorial Church
ST. ANDREW MEMORIAL CHURCH is a Ukrainian Orthodox cathedral on Main Street, in South Bound Brook, New Jersey , United States
United States
. It is the mother church of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA . The church is dedicated as a memorial to the victims of the Stalin -era Great Famine of 1932–33 , and to all Ukrainians who died in the quest for liberty and national independence. The idea for a memorial church is credited to Archbishop Mstyslav (Skrypnyk) , later Metropolitan, who had lamented in 1942 how many churches and cemeteries, and thus Ukraine's cultural and political leaders, had been destroyed under the Soviets. In 1950, work on his vision began with the acquisition of land in Somerset County . He engaged Ukrainian-Canadian architect George Kodak , who took inspiration from St Andrew\'s Church, Kiev . Groundbreaking ceremonies took place on July 21, 1955. The cemetery received its first burial in 1964, the Ukrainian sculptor Serhiy Lytvynenko, and the church was dedicated on October 10, 1965. The structure is a notable example of Ukrainian Baroque Cossack architecture . Later contributions to the interior ornamentation include mosaics and icons by Petro Cholodny and woodcarving by Andreas Darahan. It is the focus of the Ukrainian Orthodox Center, whose 100-acre campus includes a cemetery, seminary, library, museum, and other facilities
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South Bound Brook, New Jersey
SOUTH BOUND BROOK is a borough in Somerset County , New Jersey , United States. As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census , the borough's population was 4,563, reflecting an increase of 71 (+1.6%) from the 4,492 counted in the 2000 Census , which had in turn increased by 307 (+7.3%) from the 4,185 counted in the 1990 Census . What is now South Bound Brook was originally formed as a town within Franklin Township . On March 16, 1869, the name of the community was changed to BLOOMINGTON, which lasted until May 29, 1891, when the name reverted to South Bound Brook town. South Bound Brook was incorporated as an independent borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 11, 1907, based on the results of a referendum held on May 1, 1907
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Memorial
A MEMORIAL is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures , statues or fountains , and even entire parks . CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Examples of notable memorials * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESThe most common type of memorial is the gravestone or the memorial plaque . Also common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars . Memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses . Online memorials and tributes are becoming increasingly popular especially with the increase in natural burial where the laying of gravestones, or memorial plaques, is often not permitted. When somebody has died, the family may request that a memorial gift (usually money ) be given to a designated charity , or that a tree be planted in memory of the person. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are also called grassroots memorials. Sometimes, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship , to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years
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Holodomor
INSTITUTIONS * All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) * Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) * Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic * Government of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Secret police (OGPU) POLICIES * First five-year plan (Soviet Union) * Collectivization * Dekulakization
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Ukrainian Orthodox Church Of The USA
The UKRAINIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH OF THE USA (UOC of USA) is a jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate (Greek Orthodox Patriarchate) in the United States
United States
. It consists of two eparchies (dioceses ), ruled by two bishops, including about 85 active parishes and missions. The Church's current leader is Metropolitan Antony. The Church's head offices and Consistory are based in South Bound Brook , New Jersey . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Autocephalous Church * 1.2 Renouncing Autocephaly and joining the Metropolia of Ecumenical Patriarchate * 1.3 Schism * 2 Structure * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYAUTOCEPHALOUS CHURCHSeraphim Surrency writes: Bishop Bohdan, with what backing the Greeks could give him, which was mostly moral and very little financial, continued to give some competition to the organization of Teodorovich, now commonly called the "Ukrainian Metropolia", but it was a losing battle. In addition to the administrative ineptitude of Spylka, his very moderation in matters Ukrainian seemed to work against him. Spylka succeeded in attracting some Americans who were interested in Orthodoxy and most in ordination. Spylka ordained over a dozen native converts to the Orthodox priesthood without requiring any theological education and as might be expected the results were disastrous (an exception was Fr
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Architecture
ARCHITECTURE (Latin _architectura_, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων _arkhitekton_ "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder") is both the process and the product of planning , designing , and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings , are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art . Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: * A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. * The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures . * The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. * A unifying or coherent form or structure * Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity. * The design activity of the architect, from the macro-level (urban design , landscape architecture ) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture). The practice of the architect , where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Church (building)
A CHURCH BUILDING, often simply called a CHURCH, is a building used for Christian
Christian
religious activities, particularly for worship services. The term in its architectural sense is most often used by Christians to refer to their religious buildings, but it is sometimes used (by analogy) to refer to buildings of other religions . In traditional Christian
Christian
architecture , the church is often arranged in the shape of a Christian
Christian
cross . When viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are often added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring church visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural styles and layouts; many buildings that were designed for other purposes have now been converted for church use; and, similarly, many original church buildings have been put to other uses. The earliest identified Christian
Christian
church was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe
Europe

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Byzantium
BYZANTION or BYZANTIUM (/bᵻˈzæntiəm, bᵻˈzænʃəm/ ; Greek : Βυζάντιον _Byzántion_) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople
Constantinople
, and later Istanbul
Istanbul
. Byzantium
Byzantium
was colonized by the Greeks
Greeks
from Megara in c. 657 BC. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 History * 2.1 Emblem * 3 Notable people * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links NAMEThe etymology of _Byzantion_ is unknown. It has been suggested that the name is of Thraco -Illyrian origin. It may be derived from a Thracian or Illyrian personal name, _ Byzas
Byzas
_. Ancient Greek legend refers to a king Byzas
Byzas
, the leader of the Megarian colonists and founder of the city. The form _Byzantium_ is a Latinisation of the original name. Much later, the name _Byzantium_ became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire , the _"Byzantine" Empire_, whose capital Constantinople
Constantinople
stood on the site of ancient Byzantium. This usage was introduced only in 1555 by the historian Hieronymus Wolf , a century after the empire had ceased to exist. During the time of the empire, the term _Byzantium_ was restricted to just the city, rather than the empire it ruled
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Romanesque Architecture
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches . There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century, this later date being the most commonly held. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style , marked by pointed arches. Examples of Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture . The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture . Combining features of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings and other local traditions, Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture
is known by its massive quality, thick walls, round arches, sturdy pillars , groin vaults , large towers and decorative arcading . Each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan; the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials. Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use
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Gothic Architecture
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE is a style of architecture that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages . It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture . Originating in 12th century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as _Opus Francigenum_ ("French work") with the term _Gothic_ first appearing during the later part of the Renaissance . Its characteristics include the pointed arch , the ribbed vault (which evolved from the joint vaulting of Romanesque architecture) and the flying buttress . Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals , abbeys and churches of Europe. It is also the architecture of many castles , palaces , town halls , guild halls , universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings, such as dorms and rooms. It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride
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