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Chronophotography
Chronophotography
Chronophotography
is an antique photographic technique from the Victorian era
Victorian era
(beginning about 1867–68), which captures movement in several frames of print. These prints can be subsequently arranged either like animation cels or layered in a single frame
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Georges Demeny
Georges Demenÿ (12 June 1850, Douai
Douai
– 26 October 1917, Paris) was a French inventor, chronophotographer, filmmaker, and gymnast.Georges Demenÿ's grave at Montmartre CemeteryMain publications[edit]L’Éducation physique en Suède, Paris, Société d'éditions scientifiques, 1892 Guide du maître chargé de l'enseignement des exercices physiques dans les écoles publiques et privées, Paris, Société d'éditions scientifiques, 1900 Les Bases scientifiques de l’éducation physique, Paris, Félix Alcan, 1902 Physiologie des professions. Le violoniste, art, mécanisme, hygiène, Paris, A. Maloine, 1905 Cours supérieur d'éducation physique, avec Jean Philippe et Georges-Auguste Racine, Paris, Félix Alcan, 1905 Mécanisme et éducation des mouvements, Paris, Félix Alcan, 1904 ; 1905 Danses gymnastiques composées pour les établissements d'enseignement primaire et secondaire de jeunes filles, avec A
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Photographic Emulsion
Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography. Most commonly, in silver-gelatin photography, it consists of silver halide crystals dispersed in gelatin. The emulsion is usually coated onto a substrate of glass, films (of cellulose nitrate, cellulose acetate or polyester), paper, or fabric. Photographic emulsion is not a true emulsion, but a suspension of solid particles (silver halide) in a fluid (gelatin in solution). However, the word emulsion is customarily used in a photographic context. Gelatin
Gelatin
or gum arabic layers sensitized with dichromate used in the dichromated colloid processes carbon and gum bichromate are sometimes called emulsions
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Thomas Edison
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.[1][2][3] He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park",[4] he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.[5] Edison was a prolific inventor, holding 1,093 US patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. More significant than the number of Edison's patents was the widespread impact of his inventions: electric light and power utilities, sound recording, and motion pictures all established major new industries worldwide
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Collodion Process
The collodion process is an early photographic process.Contents1 Description 2 History2.1 21st century3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 Use 6 Search for a dry collodion process 7 Collodion emulsion 8 Collodion emulsion preparation example 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksDescription[edit] Collodion process, mostly synonymous with the "collodion wet plate process", requires the photographic material to be coated, sensitized, exposed and developed within the span of about fifteen minutes, necessitating a portable darkroom for use in the field. Collodion is normally used in its wet form, but can also be used in humid ("preserved") or dry form, at the cost of greatly increased exposure time. The latter made the dry form unsuitable for the usual portraiture work of most professional photographers of the 19th century
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Electric Spark
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures. Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday
described this phenomenon as "the beautiful flash of light attending the discharge of common electricity".[1] The rapid transition from a non-conducting to a conductive state produces a brief emission of light and a sharp crack or snapping sound. A spark is created when the applied electric field exceeds the dielectric breakdown strength of the intervening medium. For air, the breakdown strength is about 30 kV/cm at sea level.[2] At the beginning stages, free electrons in the gap (from cosmic rays or background radiation) are accelerated by the electrical field. As they collide with air molecules, they create additional ions and newly freed electrons which are also accelerated
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Press Camera
A press camera is a medium or large format view camera that was predominantly used by press photographers in the early to mid-20th century. It was largely replaced for press photography by 35mm film cameras in the 1960s, and subsequently, by digital cameras
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Focal-plane Shutter
In camera design, a focal-plane shutter (FPS) is a type of photographic shutter that is positioned immediately in front of the focal plane of the camera, that is, right in front of the photographic film or image sensor.Contents1 Two-curtain shutters 2 Vertical-travel shutters 3 Advantages 4 Disadvantages 5 Electro-optical shutters 6 The rotary focal-plane shutter 7 The revolving drum focal-plane shutter 8 History and technical development8.1 The single-curtain focal-plane shutter 8.2 The Leica-type dual-curtain focal-plane shutter 8.3 The Square-type metal-bladed focal-plane shutter 8.4 The quest for higher speed 8.5 The electronically controlled focal-plane shutter 8.6 Breaking the X-sync
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Ottomar Anschutz
Ottomar Anschütz (16 May 1846 in Lissa – 30 May 1907 in Berlin) was a German inventor, photographer, and chronophotographer. Biography[edit] He invented 1/1000 of a second shutter, and the electrotachyscope in 1887. The electrotachyscope was a disk of 24 glass diapositives, manually powered, and illuminated by a sparking spiral Geissler tube, used by a single viewer, or projected to a small group. In 1887 Anschütz developed the Projecting Electrotachyscope, in 1891 a slightly smaller, powered version, the "Electrotachyscope" (electrical Schnellseher), was being manufactured by Siemens & Halske in Berlin, used in a public arcade and was displayed at the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in Frankfurt
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Stroboscope
A stroboscope also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary. It consists of either a rotating disk with slots or holes or a lamp such as a flashtube which produces brief repetitive flashes of light. Usually the rate of the stroboscope is adjustable to different frequencies. When a rotating or vibrating object is observed with the stroboscope at its vibration frequency (or a submultiple of it), it appears stationary. Thus stroboscopes are also used to measure frequency. The principle is used for the study of rotating, reciprocating, oscillating or vibrating objects. Machine parts and vibrating string are common examples
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Victorian Era
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era
Victorian era
was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque
Belle Époque
era of continental Europe. Defined according to sensibilities and political concerns, the period is sometimes considered to begin with the passage of the Reform Act 1832
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Jean-Martin Charcot
Jean-Martin Charcot
Jean-Martin Charcot
(/ʃɑːrˈkoʊ/; French: [ʃaʁko]; 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology.[1] He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes.[2] He is also known as "the founder of modern neurology",[3] and his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease (better known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neurone disease, or
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Neurologist
Neurology
Neurology
(from Greek: νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology
Neurology
deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous systems (and their subdivisions, the autonomic and somatic nervous systems), including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle.[1] Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders.[2] Neurologists
Neurologists
may also be involved in clinical research, clinical trials, and basic or translational research
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Silhouette
A silhouette is the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, with its edges matching the outline of the subject. The interior of a silhouette is featureless, and the whole is typically presented on a light background, usually white, or none at all. The silhouette differs from an outline, which depicts the edge of an object in a linear form, while a silhouette appears as a solid shape. Silhouette images may be created in any visual artistic media,[1] but were first used to describe pieces of cut paper, which were then stuck to a backing in a contrasting colour, and often framed. Cutting portraits, generally in profile, from black card became popular in the mid-18th century, though the term silhouette was seldom used until the early decades of the 19th century, and the tradition has continued under this name into the 21st century
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Leland Stanford
Amasa Leland Stanford
Leland Stanford
(March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, industrialist, politician, and the founder (with his wife, Jane) of Stanford University.[1] Migrating to California
California
from New York at the time of the Gold Rush, he became a successful merchant and wholesaler, and continued to build his business empire. He spent one two-year term as Governor of California
California
after his election in 1861, and later eight years as a senator from the state. As president of Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
and, beginning in 1861, Central Pacific, he had tremendous power in the region and a lasting impact on California
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