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Chromolithography
CHROMOLITHOGRAPHY is a unique method for making multi-colour prints . This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography , and includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour. When chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is frequently used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of raised relief or recessed intaglio techniques. Chromolithography became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century; other methods were developed by printers such as Jacob Christoph Le Blon , George Baxter and Edmund Evans , and mostly relied on using several woodblocks with the colours. Hand-colouring also remained important; elements of the official British Ordnance Survey maps were coloured by hand by boys until 1875
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Felipe Alfau
FELIPE ALFAU (1902–1999) was a Spanish -born American novelist and poet . Like his contemporaries Luigi Pirandello and Flann O\'Brien , Alfau is considered a forerunner of later postmodern writers such as Vladimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov
, Thomas Pynchon
Thomas Pynchon
, Donald Barthelme
Donald Barthelme
, and Gilbert Sorrentino . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Barcelona
Barcelona
, Alfau emigrated with his family at the age of fourteen to the United States, where he lived the remainder of his life. Alfau earned a living as a translator ; his sparse fictional and poetic output remained obscure throughout most of his life. Alfau wrote two novels in English: Locos: A Comedy of Gestures and Chromos
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There Was An Old Woman Who Lived In A Shoe
"THERE WAS AN OLD WOMAN WHO LIVED IN A SHOE" is a popular English language nursery rhyme , with a Roud Folk Song Index number of 19132. Debates over its meaning and origin have largely centered on attempts to match the old woman with historical female figures who have had large families, although King George II (1683–1760) has also been proposed as the rhyme's subject. LYRICSThe most common version of the rhyme is: There was an old woman who lived in a shoe. She had so many children, she didn't know what to do; She gave them some broth without any bread; Then whipped them all soundly and put them to bed. The earliest printed version in Joseph Ritson 's Gammer Gurton's Garland in 1794 has the coarser last line: She whipp'd all their bums, and sent them to bed. Many other variations were printed in the 18th and 19th centuries
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History Of Printing
The history of printing goes back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times. The use of round seals for rolling an impression into clay tablets goes back to early Mesopotamian civilization before 3000 BCE, they feature complex and beautiful images. In both China and Egypt, the use of small stamps for seals preceded the use of larger blocks. In China, India and Europe, printing on cloth certainly preceded printing on paper or papyrus. The process is essentially the same: in Europe special presentation impressions of prints were often printed on silk until the 17th century. The development of printing has made it possible for books, newspapers, magazines, and other reading materials to be produced in great numbers, and it plays an important role in promoting literacy
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Woodblock Printing
WOODBLOCK PRINTING is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia
East Asia
and originating in China
China
in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper . As a method of printing on cloth , the earliest surviving examples from China
China
date to before 220 AD, and woodblock printing remained the most common East Asian method of printing books and other texts, as well as images, until the 19th century. _ Ukiyo-e _ is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print. Most European uses of the technique for printing images on paper are covered by the art term woodcut , except for the block-books produced mainly in the 15th century
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Movable Type
MOVABLE TYPE (US English; MOVEABLE TYPE in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper . The world's first movable type printing press technology for printing paper books was made of ceramic porcelain china materials and was invented around AD 1040 in China during the Northern Song Dynasty by the inventor Bi Sheng (990–1051). Subsequently in 1377, the world's oldest extant movable metal print book, Jikji , was printed in Korea during the Goryeo dynasty
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Printing Press
A PRINTING PRESS is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium. The printing press was invented in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by the German Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
around 1440, based on existing screw presses . Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, developed a printing system, by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. His newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities. The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries
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Etching
ETCHING is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material. As a method of printmaking , it is, along with engraving , the most important technique for old master prints , and remains in wide use today. In a number of modern variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology, including circuit boards . In traditional pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist then scratches off the ground with a pointed etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece, so exposing the bare metal. The échoppe, a tool with a slanted oval section, is also used for "swelling" lines
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Mezzotint
MEZZOTINT is a printmaking process of the intaglio family, technically a drypoint method. It was the first tonal method to be used, enabling half-tones to be produced without using line- or dot-based techniques like hatching , cross-hatching or stipple . Mezzotint
Mezzotint
achieves tonality by roughening the plate with thousands of little dots made by a metal tool with small teeth, called a "rocker." In printing, the tiny pits in the plate hold the ink when the face of the plate is wiped clean. A high level of quality and richness in the print can be achieved
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Aquatint
AQUATINT is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching . In intaglio printmaking, the artist makes marks on the plate (in the case of aquatint, a copper or zinc plate) that are capable of holding ink. The inked plate is passed through a printing press together with a sheet of paper, resulting in a transfer of the ink to the paper. This can be repeated a number of times, depending on the particular technique. Like etching , aquatint uses the application of a mordant to etch into the metal plate. Where the engraving technique uses a needle to make lines that print in black (or whatever colour ink is used), aquatint uses powdered rosin to create a tonal effect. The rosin is acid resistant and typically adhered to the plate by controlled heating. The tonal variation is controlled by the level of mordant exposure over large areas, and thus the image is shaped by large sections at a time
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Lithography
LITHOGRAPHY (from Ancient Greek λίθος_, lithos_, meaning 'stone', and γράφειν_, graphein_, meaning 'to write') is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone ) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic , _etching _ the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image
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Rotary Printing Press
A ROTARY PRINTING PRESS is a printing press in which the images to be printed are curved around a cylinder. Printing can be done on a large number of substrates, including paper, cardboard, and plastic. Substrates can be sheet feed or unwound on a continuous roll through the press to be printed and further modified if required (e.g. die cut, overprint varnished, embossed). Printing presses that use continuous rolls are sometimes referred to as "web presses". == Developmental history led a 1790 patent for a rotary press. The rotary press itself is an evolution of the cylinder press, also patented by William Nicholson and invented by Friedrich Koenig . Rotary drum printing was invented by Richard March Hoe in 1843. An 1844 patent replaced the reciprocating platforms used in earlier designs with a fixed platform served by rotating drums, and through a series of advances a complete rotary printing press was perfected in 1846, and patented in 1847
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Hectograph
The HECTOGRAPH, GELATIN DUPLICATOR or JELLYGRAPH is a printing process that involves transfer of an original, prepared with special inks, to a pan of gelatin or a gelatin pad pulled tight on a metal frame. While the original use of the technology has diminished, it has recently been revived for use in the art world. The hectograph has been modernized and made practical for anyone to use. CONTENTS* 1 Process * 1.1 Master * 1.2 Gelatin image * 1.3 Copies * 1.4 Cleanup * 1.5 Storage * 2 Advantages * 3 Current uses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PROCESSMASTERThe special aniline dyes for making the master image came in the form of ink or in pens, pencils, carbon paper and even typewriter ribbon . Hectograph pencils and pens are sometimes still available. Various other inks have been found usable to varying degrees in the process; master sheets for spirit duplicators have also been pressed into service
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Offset Printing
OFFSET PRINTING is a commonly used printing technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, which is based on the repulsion of oil and water , the offset technique employs a flat (planographic ) image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film (called "fountain solution"), keeping the non-printing areas ink-free. The modern "web" process feeds a large reel of paper through a large press machine in several parts, typically for several metres, which then prints continuously as the paper is fed through. Development of the offset press came in two versions: in 1875 by Robert Barclay of England
England
for printing on tin, and in 1904 by Ira Washington Rubel of the United States
United States
for printing on paper
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Hot Metal Typesetting
In printing and typography , HOT METAL TYPESETTING (also called MECHANICAL TYPESETTING, HOT LEAD TYPESETTING, HOT METAL, and HOT TYPE) is a technology for typesetting text in letterpress printing . This method injects molten type metal into a mold that has the shape of one or more glyphs . The resulting sorts and slugs are later used to press ink onto paper. CONTENTS* 1 Types of typesetting * 1.1 Linotype * 1.2 Typograph and Monoline * 1.3 Ludlow * 1.4 Monotype * 2 Transition * 3 Comparison to successors * 4 References * 5 External links TYPES OF TYPESETTINGTwo different approaches to mechanising typesetting were independently developed in the late 19th century. One, known as the Monotype composition caster system, produced texts with the aid of perforated paper-ribbons, all characters are cast separate. These machines could produce texts also in "large-composition" up to 24 point
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Mimeograph
The STENCIL DUPLICATOR or MIMEOGRAPH MACHINE (often abbreviated to MIMEO) is a low-cost duplicating machine that works by forcing ink through a stencil onto paper. The mimeograph process should not be confused with the spirit duplicator process. Mimeographs, along with spirit duplicators and hectographs , were a common technology in printing small quantities, as in office work, classroom materials, and church bulletins. Early fanzines were printed with this technology, because it was widespread and cheap. In the late 1960s, mimeographs, spirit duplicators, and hectographs began to be gradually displaced by photocopying
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