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Chromolithography
Chromolithography
Chromolithography
is a unique method for making multi-colour prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour.[1] When chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is frequently used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of raised relief or recessed intaglio techniques.[2] Chromolithography
Chromolithography
became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century; other methods were developed by printers such as Jacob Christoph Le Blon, George Baxter and Edmund Evans, and mostly relied on using several woodblocks with the colours. Hand-colouring also remained important; elements of the official British Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
maps were coloured by hand by boys until 1875
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Felipe Alfau
Felipe Alfau (1902–1999) was a Spanish-born American novelist and poet. Like his contemporaries Luigi Pirandello and Flann O'Brien, Alfau is considered a forerunner of later postmodern writers such as Vladimir Nabokov, Thomas Pynchon, Donald Barthelme, and Gilbert Sorrentino.Contents1 Biography 2 Writings 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Barcelona, Alfau emigrated with his family at the age of fourteen to the United States, where he lived the remainder of his life. Alfau earned a living as a translator; his sparse fictional and poetic output remained obscure throughout most of his life. Alfau wrote two novels in English: Locos: A Comedy of Gestures and Chromos. Locos — a metafictive collection of related short stories set in Toledo and Madrid, involving several characters that defy the wishes of the author, write their own stories, and even assume each other's roles — was published by Farrar & Rinehart in 1936
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Gum Arabic
Gum arabic, also known as acacia gum, is a natural gum consisting of the hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree. Originally, gum arabic was collected from Acacia
Acacia
nilotica which was called the "gum arabic tree";[1] in the present day, gum arabic is predominantly collected from two related species, namely Acacia
Acacia
senegal[2] and Vachellia (Acacia) seyal
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Relief Print
Relief printing is a family of printing methods where a printing block, plate or matrix that has had ink applied to its surface, but not to any recessed areas, is brought into contact with paper. The areas of the printing plate with ink will leave ink on the paper, whereas the recessed areas of the printing plate will leave the paper ink-free. A printing press may not be needed, as the back of the paper can be rubbed or pressed by hand with a simple tool such as a brayer or roller. In many historical processes, the matrix in relief printing is created by starting with a flat original surface and then removing (e.g., by carving) away areas intended to print white. The remaining areas of the original surface receive the ink. The relief family of techniques includes woodcut, metalcut, wood engraving, relief etching, linocut, rubber stamp, foam printing, potato printing, and some types of collagraph. Traditional text printing with movable type is also a relief technique
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Intaglio (printmaking)
Intaglio (/ɪnˈtæli.oʊ/ in-TAL-ee-oh; Italian: [inˈtaʎʎo]) is the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink.[1] It is the direct opposite of a relief print. Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface or matrix, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, aquatint or mezzotint.[2] Collagraphs may also be printed as intaglio plates.[3]Contents1 Process 2 Brief history 3 Current use 4 Famous intaglio artists 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksProcess[edit] In intaglio printing, the lines to be printed are cut into a metal plate by means either of a cutting tool called a burin, held in the hand – in which case the process is called engraving; or through the corrosive action of acid – in which case the process is known as etching.[4] In etching, for example, the plate is covered in a resin ground or an acid-resistant wax material
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George Baxter (printer)
George Baxter (1804–1867) was an English artist and printer based in London. He is credited with the invention of commercially viable colour printing. Though colour printing had been developed in China centuries before, it was not commercially viable. However, in early years of the 19th century the process of colour printing had been revived by George Savage, a Yorkshireman in London.[1] It was to be Savage's methods upon which Baxter, already an accomplished artist and engraver, was to improve. In 1828, Baxter began experimenting with colour printing by means of woodblocks.Contents1 Baxter's life 2 Baxter’s licensees 3 Baxter's method 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksBaxter's life[edit]George Baxter, from a photograph supplied by Mr. Frederick Harrild, taken from the original in the possession of the family.Baxter was born in 1804 in Lewes, Sussex, and was the second son of John Baxter, a printer
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Woodcut
Woodcut
Woodcut
is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print. The block is cut along the wood grain (unlike wood engraving, where the block is cut in the end-grain). The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller (brayer), leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks (using a different block for each color)
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Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) is a national mapping agency in the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain.[1] It is one of the world's largest producers of maps. Since 1 April 2015 it has operated as Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership. The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. It is also a member of the Public Data Group. The agency's name indicates its original military purpose (see ordnance and surveying), which was to map Scotland
Scotland
in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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There Was An Old Woman Who Lived In A Shoe
"There was an Old Woman Who Lived in a Shoe" is a popular English language nursery rhyme, with a Roud Folk Song Index
Roud Folk Song Index
number of 19132. Debates over its meaning and origin have largely centered on attempts to match the old woman with historical female figures who have had large families, although King George II (1683–1760) has also been proposed as the rhyme's subject. Lyrics[edit] The most common version of the rhyme is:[1]There was an old woman who lived in a shoe. She had so many children, she didn't know what to do; She gave them some broth without any bread; Then whipped them all soundly and put them to be
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England
England
England
is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[6][7][8] It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea
Irish Sea
lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south
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Mulhouse
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Mulhouse
Mulhouse
(pronounced [myluz]; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, [mɪlˈyːzə]; German: Mülhausen; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063[1] in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area[2] in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, and the second largest in the Alsace
Alsace
region after Strasbourg
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Playing Card
A playing card is a piece of specially prepared heavy paper, thin cardboard, plastic-coated paper, cotton-paper blend, or thin plastic, marked with distinguishing motifs and used as one of a set for playing card games. Playing cards are typically palm-sized for convenient handling, and were first invented in China
China
during the Tang dynasty.[1]Contents1 History1.1 Early history 1.2 Persia and Arabia 1.3 Egypt 1.4 Spread across Europe and early design changes 1.5 Later design changes2 Modern deck formats2.1 French suits3 Symbols in Unicode 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 References 7 Cited sources 8 External linksHistory[edit] Early history[edit]A Chinese printed playing card dated c
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F.W.P. Greenwood
Francis William Pitt Greenwood (February 5, 1797 - August 2, 1843) was a Unitarian minister of King's Chapel in Boston, Massachusetts. Born in Boston, Greenwood graduated from Harvard College in 1814, and after studying theology under Henry Ware Jr., he became pastor of New South Church in October, 1818.[1] He left this position after about a year, following a sudden illness of "bleeding from the lungs," and spent nearly two years in England.[1] After returning to the United States in 1821, he lived for a time in Baltimore, Maryland, where he preached in the pulpit of the Unitarian Church led by his friend, Rev
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American Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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