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Christian Primitivism
RESTORATIONISM, also described as CHRISTIAN PRIMITIVISM, is the belief that Christianity
Christianity
has been or should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church , which restorationists see as the search for a more pure and more ancient form of the religion. Fundamentally, "this vision seeks to correct faults or deficiencies (in the church) by appealing to the primitive church as a normative model." :635 Efforts to restore an earlier, purer form of Christianity
Christianity
are often a response to denominationalism
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Anselm Of Canterbury
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY (c. 1033 – 21 April 1109) was a Benedictine monk , abbot , philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint ; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism
Scholasticism
. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement . He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
Investiture Controversy

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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism
Catholicism
portal Philosophy portal * v * t * e SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS OP (/əˈkwaɪnəs/ ; Italian : Tommaso d'Aquino, lit. 'Thomas of Aquino '; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar , Catholic priest , and Doctor of the Church . He was an immensely influential philosopher , theologian , and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism , within which he is also known as the DOCTOR ANGELICUS and the DOCTOR COMMUNIS. The name Aquinas identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino in present-day Lazio . He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism ; of which he argued that reason is found in God. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law , metaphysics, and political theory
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Gregory Palamas
GREGORY PALAMAS (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296–1359) was a monk of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
in Greece
Greece
and later the archbishop of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm
Hesychasm
. The teachings embodied in his writings defending Hesychasm
Hesychasm
against the attack of Barlaam are sometimes referred to as Palamism , and his followers as Palamites. Palamas is venerated as a Saint
Saint
in the Eastern Orthodox Church . Some Byzantine Catholic Churches , which are in communion with Rome , venerate him in the liturgy , and he has been called a saint and has been repeatedly cited as a great theological writer by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
. Some of his writings are collected in the Philokalia
Philokalia

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Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
· German mysticism Start of the
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Martin Luther
MARTIN LUTHER (/ˈluːθər/ ; German: ( listen ); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546), O.S.A. , was a German professor of theology , composer, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church . He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences as he understood it to be, that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His refusal to renounce all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope
Pope
and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor
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Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal * v * t * e SCHOLASTICISM is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and 12th centuries for the study of arts , law , medicine , and theology , such as Schola Medica Salernitana , the University
University
of Bologna , and the University
University
of Paris
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East–west Schism
The EAST–WEST SCHISM, also called the GREAT SCHISM and the SCHISM OF 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, which has lasted since the 11th century. It is not to be confused with the Western Schism (which is also sometimes called the "Great" Schism). The ecclesiastical differences and theological disputes between the Greek East and Latin West pre-dated the formal rupture that occurred in 1054. Prominent among these were the issues of the source of the Holy Spirit , whether leavened or unleavened bread should be used in the Eucharist
Eucharist
, the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome
Rome
's claim to universal jurisdiction , and the place of the See of Constantinople
Constantinople
in relation to the Pentarchy
Pentarchy

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Byzantine Iconoclasm
BYZANTINE ICONOCLASM (Greek : Εἰκονομαχία, Eikonomachía) refers to two periods in the history of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
when the use of religious images or icons was opposed by religious and imperial authorities within the Eastern Church and the temporal imperial hierarchy. The "First Iconoclasm", as it is sometimes called, lasted between about 726 and 787. The "Second Iconoclasm" was between 814 and 842. According to the traditional view, Byzantine Iconoclasm
Iconoclasm
was started by a ban on religious images by Emperor Leo III and continued under his successors. It was accompanied by widespread destruction of images and persecution of supporters of the veneration of images
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Pope Gregory I
POPE SAINT GREGORY I ( Latin
Latin
: Gregorius I; c. 540 – 12 March 604), commonly known as SAINT GREGORY THE GREAT, was Pope
Pope
of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to his death in 604. Gregory is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome
Rome
to convert a pagan people to Christianity. Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope
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Alcuin
ALCUIN OF YORK (/ˈælkwɪn/ ; Latin : Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; c. 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called EALHWINE, ALHWIN or ALCHOIN—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York
York
, Northumbria
Northumbria
. He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop Ecgbert at York. At the invitation of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, he became a leading scholar and teacher at the Carolingian
Carolingian
court , where he remained a figure in the 780s and '90s. Alcuin
Alcuin
wrote many theological and dogmatic treatises, as well as a few grammatical works and a number of poems. He was made Abbot of Tours
Tours
in 796, where he remained until his death. "The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard
Einhard
's Life of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
(ca
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Photios I Of Constantinople
PHOTIOS I (Greek : Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), a also spelled PHOTIUS (/ˈfoʊʃəs/ ) or FOTIOS, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 858 to 867 and from 877 to 886; He is recognized in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as ST. PHOTIOS THE GREAT. Photios is widely regarded as the most powerful and influential church leader of Constantinople
Constantinople
subsequent to John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
's archbishopric around the turn of the fifth century. He is also viewed as the most important intellectual of his time – "the leading light of the ninth-century renaissance"
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Philip Melanchthon
PHILIP MELANCHTHON (/məˈlæŋkθən/ ; Latin
Latin
: Philippus Melanchthon; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560), born PHILIPP SCHWARTZERDT (German: ), was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation
Reformation
, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation
Reformation
, and an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. Along with Luther, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism
Lutheranism
, and is often deemed by historians to be its intellectual leader as contrasted with Martin Luther's rather simplistic views
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Indulgence
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
, an INDULGENCE is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins". It may reduce the temporal punishment after death, in the state or process of purification called Purgatory
Purgatory
. The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church
describes an indulgence as "a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the action of the Church which, as the minister of redemption, dispenses and applies with authority the treasury of the satisfactions of Christ and the saints"
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English Reformation
Waldensians · Savonarola · Lollards · Western Schism · Hussites · Northern Renaissance · German mysticism Start of the Reformation
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Arminianism
ARMINIANISM is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants . His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
, Huldrych Zwingli , John Calvin
John Calvin
, and other Protestant Reformers . Jacobus Arminius (Jakob Harmenszoon) was a student of Theodore Beza
Theodore Beza
(Calvin's successor) at the Theological University of Geneva. Arminianism
Arminianism
is known to some as a soteriological diversification of Protestant
Protestant
Calvinist
Calvinist
Christianity
Christianity

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