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Christian Primitivism
Restorationism, also described as Christian Primitivism, is the belief that Christianity
Christianity
has been or should be restored along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church, which restorationists see as the search for a more pure and more ancient form of the religion.[1][2][3] Fundamentally, "this vision seeks to correct faults or deficiencies (in the church) by appealing to the primitive church as a normative model."[1]:635 Efforts to restore an earlier, purer form of Christianity
Christianity
are often a response to denominationalism
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Pietism
Pietism
Pietism
(/ˈpaɪ.ɪtɪsm/, from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism
Lutheranism
that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.[1] Although the movement was active exclusively within Lutheranism, it had a tremendous impact on Protestantism
Protestantism
worldwide, particularly in North America and Europe. Pietism
Pietism
originated in modern Germany
Germany
in the late 17th century with the work of Philipp Spener, a Lutheran theologian whose emphasis on personal transformation through spiritual rebirth and renewal, individual devotion and piety laid the foundations for the movement
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Philip Melanchthon
Philip Melanchthon[a] (born Philipp Schwartzerdt;[b] 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran
Lutheran
reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran
Lutheran
Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and John Calvin
John Calvin
as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. After Luther himself, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism.[1] Melanchthon along with Luther denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, and denounced the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance by the Catholic Church, which they believed could not offer certainty of salvation
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Pope Gregory I
Pope
Pope
Saint
Saint
Gregory I (Latin: Gregorius I; c. 540 – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint
Saint
Gregory the Great,[1] was Pope
Pope
of the Catholic Church from 3 September 590 to 12 March 604. He is famous for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the Gregorian Mission, to convert a pagan people to Christianity.[2] Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope.[3] The epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in Eastern Christianity because of his Dialogues. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos" or the Latin equivalent "Dialogus". A Roman senator's son and himself the Prefect of Rome
Rome
at 30, Gregory tried the monastery but soon returned to active public life, ending his life and the century as pope
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Alcuin
Alcuin
Alcuin
of York
York
(/ˈælkwɪn/;[1] Latin: Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus; c. 735 – 19 May 804 AD)—also called Ealhwine, Alhwin or Alchoin—was an English scholar, clergyman, poet and teacher from York, Northumbria. He was born around 735 and became the student of Archbishop Ecgbert at York. At the invitation of Charlemagne, he became a leading scholar and teacher at the Carolingian
Carolingian
court, where he remained a figure in the 780s and '90s. Alcuin
Alcuin
wrote many theological and dogmatic treatises, as well as a few grammatical works and a number of poems. He was made Abbot of Tours
Tours
in 796, where he remained until his death. "The most learned man anywhere to be found", according to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne[2] (ca. 817-833), he is considered among the most important architects of the Carolingian
Carolingian
Renaissance
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Photios I Of Constantinople
Photios I (Greek: Φώτιος Phōtios), (c. 810/820 – 6 February 893), [a] also spelled Photius[3] (/ˈfoʊʃəs/) or Fotios, was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
from 858 to 867 and from 877 to 886;[4] He is recognized in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
as St. Photios the Great. Photios is widely regarded as the most powerful and influential church leader of Constantinople
Constantinople
subsequent to John Chrysostom's archbishopric around the turn of the fifth century
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East–West Schism
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism
Schism
and the Schism
Schism
of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Roman
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Scholasticism
Catholicism portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portalv t e Scholasticism
Scholasticism
is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities.[1] The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology,[2] such as Schola Medica Salernitana, the University
University
of Bologna, and the University
University
of Paris
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalv t ePart of a series onChristianityJesus Christ Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Son of God Virgin birth Ministry Crucifixion ResurrectionBible FoundationsOld Testament New Testament Gospel Canon Books Church Creed New CovenantTheologyGod TrinityFather Son Holy SpiritApologetics Baptism Christology History of theology Mission Patriology Pneumatology SalvationHistory TraditionMary Apostles Peter Paul Fathers Early Christianity Constantine Councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Luther Reformation Radical ReformationRelated topicsArt
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Anselm Of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury[a] (/ˈænsɛlm/), also called Anselm of Aosta (Italian: Anselmo d'Aosta) after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec (French: Anselme du Bec) after his monastery, was a Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint; his feast day is 21 April. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy
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Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
Gregory Palamas
(Greek: Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359)[1] was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period. A monk of Mount Athos
Mount Athos
(modern Greece) and later archbishop of Thessaloniki, he is famous for his defense of hesychast spirituality, the uncreated character of the light of the Transfiguration, and the distinction between God's essence and energies (i.e., the divine will, divine grace, etc.). His teaching unfolded over the course of three major controversies, (1) with the Italo-Greek Barlaam between 1336 and 1341, (2) with the monk Gregory Akindynos between 1341 and 1347, and (3) with the philosopher Gregoras, from 1348 to 1355
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Reformation
The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity
Christianity
initiated by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Jacobus Arminius
Jacobus Arminius
and other Protestant Reformers
Protestant Reformers
in 16th-century Europe. It is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
by Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 and lasted until the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648. Although there had been earlier attempts to reform the Catholic Church – such as those of Jan Hus, Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, and Girolamo Savonarola – Luther is widely acknowledged to have started the Reformation
Reformation
with the Ninety-five Theses
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Martin Luther
Martin Luther, O.S.A. (/ˈluːθər/;[1] German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( listen); 10 November 1483[2] – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk,[3] and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. He strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences. Luther proposed an academic discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses
Ninety-five Theses
of 1517
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Indulgence
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, an indulgence is "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins."[1] It may reduce the "temporal punishment for sin" after death (as opposed to the eternal punishment merited by mortal sin), in the state or process of purification called Purgatory. The Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catechism of the Catholic Church
describes an indulgence as "a remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven, which the faithful Christian who is duly disposed gains under certain prescribed conditions through the actio
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Monothelitism
Monothelitism
Monothelitism
or monotheletism (from Greek μονοθελητισμός "doctrine of one will") is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological
Christological
doctrine, that formally emerged in Armenia and Syria
Syria
in 629.[1] Specifically, monothelitism is the view that Jesus Christ has two natures but only one will. This is contrary to the Christology
Christology
that Jesus Christ has two wills (human and divine) corresponding to his two natures (dyothelitism). Monothelitism
Monothelitism
is a development of the Neo-Chalcedonian
Neo-Chalcedonian
position in the Christological debates
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Justification (theology)
In Christian theology, justification is God's act of removing the guilt and penalty of sin while at the same time making a sinner righteous through Christ's atoning sacrifice. The means of justification is an area of significant difference among Catholicism, Orthodoxy and Protestantism.[1] In Lutheranism
Lutheranism
and Calvinism, righteousness from God is viewed as being credited to the sinner's account through faith alone, without works. Broadly speaking, Catholic, Methodist
Methodist
and Orthodox Christians distinguish between initial justification, which in their view ordinarily occurs at baptism, and final salvation, accomplished after a lifetime of striving to do God's will (sanctification).[2][3][4] In Catholic doctrine, forgiveness of sin exists, and in the Protestant doctrine, sin is merely "covered" and not imputed
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