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Chongryon
The General Association of Korean Residents in Japan[2] (Chae Ilbon Chosŏnin Ch'ongryŏnhaphoe in Korean or Zai-Nihon Chōsenjin Sōrengōkai in Japanese), abbreviated to Chongryon[2] (Korean: 총련, Hanja: 總聯) or Chōsen Sōren (Japanese: 朝鮮総連), is one of two main organisations for Zainichi (or Jaeil) Koreans (long-term Korean residents in Japan) and has close ties to North Korea (DPRK). As there are no diplomatic relations between the two states, it has functioned as North Korea's de facto embassy in Japan.[3][4] Chongryon
Chongryon
members primarily consist of those who have retained their registration as Joseon nationals (Japanese: Chōsen-seki), instead of taking or being born with Japanese or South Korean nationality. Joseon nationality was a legal status that the Japanese government defined in the aftermath of World War II, when the government of the Korean peninsula was in an undetermined state
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North Korea
Coordinates: 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin KonghwagukFlagEmblemAnthem: "Aegukka" Korean: 애국가, The Patriotic SongArea controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Pyongyang 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750Official languages Korean[1]Official script Chosŏn'gŭl[2]DemonymNorth Korean KoreanGovernment Unitary one-party Juche
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2011 Tōhoku Earthquake And Tsunami
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku (東北地方太平洋沖地震, Tōhoku-chihō Taiheiyō Oki Jishin) was a magnitude 9.0–9.1 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan
Japan
that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday 11 March 2011,[4][9][10] with the epicentre approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula
Oshika Peninsula
of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 29 km (18 mi).[4][11] The earthquake is often referred to in Japan
Japan
as the Great East Japan
Japan
Earthquake (東日本大震災, Higashi nihon daishinsai)[12][13][fn 1] and is also known as the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake,[28] and the 3.11 earthquake
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Provisional Government Of The Republic Of Korea
The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Korea
was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese Korean period.Contents1 History 2 List of presidents 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.[2] The government did not gain formal recognition from world powers, though a modest form of recognition was given from the Nationalist Government of China
China
and a number of other governments, most of whom were in exile themselves. The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea
Korea
that lasted from 1910 to 1945
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Government-in-exile
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.[1] Governments in exile usually plan to one day return to their native country and regain formal power. A government in exile differs from a rump state in the sense that a rump state controls at least part of its former territory.[2] For example, during World War
War
I, nearly all of Belgium
Belgium
was occupied by Germany, but Belgium
Belgium
and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west. A government in exile, in contrast, has lost all its territory. Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, or in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, or military coup
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Supreme Commander Of The Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
(SCAP) (originally briefly styled Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers[1]) was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. In Japan, the position was generally referred to as GHQ (General Headquarters), as SCAP also referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U.S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel effectively wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet
National Diet
then ratified after a few amendments
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Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
or Kim Il Sung (/ˈkɪm ˈɪlˈsʌŋ, ˈsʊŋ/;[1] Chosŏn'gŭl: 김일성, Korean: [kimils͈ʌŋ]; born Kim Sŏng-ju (김성주); 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea
North Korea
from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.[2] He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994. He was also the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea
Korea
(WPK) from 1949 to 1994 (titled chairman from 1949 to 1966 and general secretary after 1966). Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea
South Korea
in 1950, triggering a defense of South Korea
South Korea
by the United Nations
United Nations
led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953
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Kang Chol-hwan
Kang Chol-hwan
Kang Chol-hwan
(born September 18, 1968) is a North Korean defector and author. As a child, he was imprisoned in the Yodok concentration camp for 10 years. After his release he fled the country, first to China
China
and eventually to South Korea. He is the author, with Pierre Rigoulot, of The Aquariums of Pyongyang
Pyongyang
and worked as a staff writer specialized in North Korean affairs for The Chosun Ilbo. He is the founder and president of the North Korea
North Korea
Strategy Center.Contents1 Early life 2 Concentration camp 3 Release 4 Bibliography 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEarly life[edit]Kang meeting with U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
in June 2005.Kang in 2008According to his autobiography, Kang was born in Pyongyang, North Korea, and spent his childhood there. He had a good relationship with his grandfather
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Human Rights In North Korea
Human rights
Human rights
in North Korea
North Korea
are severely limited.[1] Despite numerous rights being de jure guaranteed by the country's constitution, rights groups such as Amnesty International
Amnesty International
and nations such as the United States have asserted that in practice, there is no de facto right to free speech, and the only radio, television, music and news providers that are deemed legal are those operated by the government.[2][3] According to reports from Amnesty International
Amnesty International
and the U.S. Committee for Human Rights in North Korea, by 2017 an estimated 200,000 prisoners[4] are incarcerated in camps that are dedicated to political crimes, and subjected to forced labor, physical abuse, execution[5] and human experimentation. The North Korean government
North Korean government
strictly monitors the activities of foreign visitors
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National Election Commission Of South Korea
The National Election Commission (Korean: 중앙선거관리위원회; NEC) is the independent electoral branch in South Korea
South Korea
established to manage free and fair elections and national referendums and administrative affairs concerning political parties and funds. The agency was established in accordance with Article 114 of the Constitution of South Korea. The NEC is equal in status with the National Assembly, the executive branch, the Supreme Court and the Constitutional Court of Korea
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Ministry Of Foreign Affairs Of Japan
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (外務省, Gaimu-shō) is a cabinet level ministry of the Japanese government responsible for the country's foreign relations. The ministry was established by the second term of the third article of the National Government Organization Act [1][permanent dead link], and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Establishment Act
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Kim Jong-il
^ North Korean biographies, which claim his birth date as 16 February 1942, are generally not considered to be factually reliable.Central institution membership1980–2011: Member, Presidium of the Political Bureau of the 6th Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea 1974–2011: Member, Political Bureau of the 5th, 6th Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea 1972–1997: Secretariat of the Workers' Party of Korea 1972–2011: Member, 5th, 6th Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea 1982–2011: Deputy, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th Supreme People's AssemblyOther offices held1997–2011: Chairman, Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea 1980–1997: Member, Central Military Commission of the Workers' Party of Korea 1990–1993: First Vice Chairman, National Defense CommissionLeaders of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea← Kim Il-sung
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Supreme People's Assembly
The Supreme People's Assembly
Supreme People's Assembly
(Chosongul: 최고 인민 회의) is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. It consists of one deputy from each of 687 constituencies,[1] elected to five-year terms.[2] The constitution recognizes the Workers' Party as the leading party of the state. The Workers' Party, led by Kim Jong-un, governs the DPRK in a monopoly coalition with the Social Democratic Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party
Chondoist Chongu Party
called the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland
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Juche
Juche
Juche
(/dʒuːˈtʃeɪ/[2]; Korean: 주체, lit. 'subject'; Korean pronunciation: [tɕutɕʰe]), usually left untranslated,[1] or translated as "self-reliance") is the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as Kim Il-sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".[3] It postulates that "man is the master of his destiny",[4] that the North Korean masses are to act as the "masters of the revolution and construction" and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a
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Tokyo Shimbun
The Tokyo
Tokyo
Shimbun (東京新聞, Tōkyō Shinbun, literally Tokyo Newspaper) is a Japanese newspaper published by The Chunichi Shimbun Company. The group publishes newspapers under the brand name of The Tokyo
Tokyo
Shimbun in the Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Area and under The Chunichi Shimbun in the Nagoya
Nagoya
Metropolitan Area. The group’s combined daily morning circulation is 3.5 million. As of July 2008, according to the Japan Newspaper
Newspaper
Publishers and Editors Association, the average daily circulation of The Tokyo
Tokyo
Shimbun's morning edition was 620,125 and its evening edition sold 309,387 copies daily.[1] The Chunichi Shimbun
Chunichi Shimbun
Company's headquarters is in Nagoya, Japan. Its total workforce number is 3,458
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Asahi Shimbun
The Asahi Shimbun
Asahi Shimbun
(朝日新聞, IPA: [aꜜsaçi ɕimbɯɴ], literally Morning Sun Newspaper, English: Asahi News) is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. Its circulation, which was 7.96 million for its morning edition and 3.1 million for its evening edition as of June 2010,[4] was second behind that of Yomiuri Shimbun. The company has its registered headquarters in Osaka. When Shin-ichi Hakojima was CEO, they tied up with the International Herald Tribune and published an English-language newspaper, the International Herald Tribune/Asahi Shimbun. It continued from April 2001 until February 2011.[5] It replaced Asahi's previous English-language daily, the Asahi Evening News
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