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Chocolate
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklᵻt, -kəlᵻt/ ( listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica . The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala
Guatemala
), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican
Mesoamerican
people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl pronunciation: , a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Olmec
The OLMECS were the first major civilization in Guatemala
Guatemala
and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala. They lived in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, in the present-day states of Veracruz
Veracruz
and Tabasco
Tabasco
. It has been speculated that Olmec
Olmec
derive in part from neighboring Mokaya and/or Mixe–Zoque . The population of the Olmecs flourished during Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
's formative period , dating roughly from as early as 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE. Pre- Olmec
Olmec
cultures had flourished in the area since about 2500 BCE, but by 1600–1500 BCE, early Olmec
Olmec
culture had emerged, centered on the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán site near the coast in southeast Veracruz
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Veracruz
VERACRUZ (American Spanish: ( listen )), formally VERACRUZ DE IGNACIO DE LA LLAVE (American Spanish: ), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF VERACRUZ DE IGNACIO DE LA LLAVE (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz
Veracruz
de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District , comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is Xalapa-Enríquez . Veracruz
Veracruz
is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north, San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo to the west, Puebla to the southwest, Oaxaca and Chiapas to the south, and Tabasco
Tabasco
to the southeast. On its east, Veracruz
Veracruz
has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico

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Bitter (taste)
TASTE, GUSTATORY PERCEPTION, or GUSTATION is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the GUSTATORY SYSTEM. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity , mostly on the tongue . Taste, along with smell (olfaction ) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis . The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. The tongue is covered with thousands of small bumps called papillae , which are visible to the naked eye. Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds. The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds
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Ivory Coast
Coordinates : 8°N 5°W / 8°N 5°W / 8; -5 Republic
Republic
of Côte d'Ivoire République de Côte d'Ivoire (French ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Union – Discipline – Travail" (French ) "Unity – Discipline – Work" ANTHEM: L\'Abidjanaise Song of Abidjan
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Easter
EASTER, also called PASCHA (Greek , Latin
Latin
) or RESURRECTION SUNDAY, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
from the dead, described in the New Testament
New Testament
as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus
Passion of Jesus
, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent ), a forty-day period of fasting , prayer, and penance
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Anandamide
ANANDAMIDE, also known as N-ARACHIDONOYLETHANOLAMINE or AEA, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid ) an essential ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid. The name is taken from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"> Low dose intake has an anxiolytic effect. High dose intake in mice shows evident hippocampus death. It is not possible to train tolerable maximum high dosage for mice. Expired patents from 2004 exist that describe anandamide as a vitalising additive for alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, including combining it with another additive, Oleoylethanolamide, recited as an invention from Nestle, to increase the "stimulus" effect. The amount of anandamide in cacao is 0.5 μg per gram. "Lucid Parties", where people eat 20–30 kilograms of chocolate (and, therefore, significant amounts of anandamide), are legal and becoming trendy
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Alkaloid
ALKALOIDS are a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Some synthetic compounds of similar structure are also termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon , hydrogen and nitrogen , alkaloids may also contain oxygen , sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine , bromine , and phosphorus . Alkaloids are produced by a large variety of organisms including bacteria , fungi , plants , and animals . They can be purified from crude extracts of these organisms by acid-base extraction . Alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimalarial (e.g. quinine ), antiasthma (e.g. ephedrine ), anticancer (e.g. homoharringtonine ), cholinomimetic (e.g. galantamine ), vasodilatory (e.g. vincamine ), antiarrhythmic (e.g. quinidine ), analgesic (e.g. morphine ), antibacterial (e.g
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Maya Civilization
The MAYA CIVILIZATION was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples
Maya peoples
, and noted for its hieroglyphic script —the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art , architecture , mathematics , calendar , and astronomical system. The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico
Mexico
, all of Guatemala
Guatemala
and Belize
Belize
, and the western portions of Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador
El Salvador

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Aztec
AZTEC CULTURE (/ˈæztɛk/ ), also known as Mexica
Mexica
culture, was a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in Central Mexico
Mexico
in the post-classic period from 1300-1521, during the time in which a triple alliance of the Mexica, Texcoca and Tepaneca tribes established the Aztec empire . The Aztec
Aztec
people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico
Mexico
, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. Aztec
Aztec
culture is the culture of the people referred to as Aztecs, but since most ethnic groups of central Mexico
Mexico
in the postclassic period shared basic cultural traits, many of the traits that characterize Aztec
Aztec
culture cannot be said to be exclusive to the Aztecs
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose
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Brooklyn Museum
The BROOKLYN MUSEUM is an art museum located in the New York City borough of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
. At 560,000 square feet (52,000 m2), the museum is New York City
New York City
's third largest in physical size and holds an art collection with roughly 1.5 million works. Located near the Prospect Heights , Crown Heights , Flatbush , and Park Slope
Park Slope
neighborhoods of Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and founded in 1895, the Beaux-Arts building, designed by McKim, Mead and White , was planned to be the largest art museum in the world
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Maya Script
MAYAN SCRIPT, also known as MAYAN GLYPHS or MAYAN HIEROGLYPHS, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered. The earliest inscriptions found which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BCE in San Bartolo , Guatemala
Guatemala
. Maya writing was in continuous use throughout Mesoamerica until the Spanish conquest of the Maya in the 16th and 17th centuries
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Guatemala
Coordinates : 15°30′N 90°15′W / 15.500°N 90.250°W / 15.500; -90.250 Republic
Republic
of Guatemala República de Guatemala
Guatemala
(Spanish ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Libre Crezca Fecundo" * "El País de la
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Paul Gavarni
PAUL GAVARNI was the nom de plume of SULPICE GUILLAUME CHEVALIER (13 January 1804, Paris – 24 November 1866), a French illustrator , born in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Nom-de-plume * 3 Publications * 4 Illustrated works * 5 Change in focus * 6 Visit to England * 7 Collections and catalogues * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY CAREERGavarni's father Sulpice Chevalier was from a family line of coopers from Burgundy . Paul began work as a mechanical worker in a machine factory but he saw that to make any progress in his profession, he had to be able to draw; accordingly in his spare time in the evenings, he took classes in drawing. He devoted his special attention to architectural and mechanical drawing and worked at land surveying and mapping which led to his obtaining a position with the Government Ordnance Department as a draughtsman. It wasn't until his early thirties that he turned his attention to his proper vocation as an artist
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Chiapas
^ a. By the will of the people of Chiapas
Chiapas
expressed by direct vote for incorporation into the Federation. ^ b. The state's GDP
GDP
was 153,062,117 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 11,957,977.89 thousand of dollars , being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). CHIAPAS (Spanish pronunciation: ( listen )), officially the FREE AND SOVEREIGN STATE OF CHIAPAS (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District , make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico
Mexico
. It is divided into 122 municipalities and its capital city is Tuxtla Gutiérrez
Tuxtla Gutiérrez
. Other important population centers in Chiapas
Chiapas
include Ocosingo , Tapachula , San Cristóbal de las Casas , Comitán and Arriaga
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