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Chloranthales
Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
/ˌklɔːrænˈθeɪʃiː/ is a family of flowering plants (angiosperms), the only family in the order Chloranthales.[1] It is not closely related to any other family of flowering plants, and is among the early-diverging lineages in the angiosperms. They are woody or weakly woody plants occurring in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, Madagascar, Central and South America, and the West Indies. The family consists of four extant genera, totalling about 77 known species according to Christenhusz and Byng in 2016.[2] Some species are used in traditional medicine. The type genus is Chloranthus.Contents1 Description1.1 Differences between the genera2 Taxonomy2.1 Historical classifications3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
are fragrant shrubs or herbaceous plants, that only produce side branches on the new growth
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Piperales
Piperales
Piperales
is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. It necessarily includes the family Piperaceae
Piperaceae
but otherwise has been treated variously over time
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Antilles
The Antilles
Antilles
(/ænˈtɪliːz/; Antilles
Antilles
[ɑ̃.tij] in French; Antillas in Spanish; Antillen in Dutch and Antilhas in Portuguese) is an archipelago bordered by the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
to the south and west, the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
to the northwest, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the north and east. The Antillean islands are divided into two smaller groupings: the Greater Antilles
Greater Antilles
and the Lesser Antilles. The Greater Antilles includes the larger islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola (subdivided into Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic) and the Cayman Islands
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Vessel Element
A vessel element or vessel member (trachea) is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants. Vessel elements (tracheae) are typically found in flowering plants (angiosperms) but absent from most gymnosperms such as conifers. Vessel elements are the main feature distinguishing the "hardwood" of angiosperms from the "softwood" of conifers.Contents1 Morphology 2 Evolutionary significance 3 See also 4 Further referencesMorphology[edit] Xylem
Xylem
is the tissue in vascular plants which conducts water (and substances dissolved in it) upwards in a plant. There are two kinds of cell which are involved in the actual transport: tracheids and vessel elements. Vessel elements are the building blocks of vessels, which constitute the major part of the water transporting system in those plants in which they occur
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Stigma (botany)
The stigma (plural: stigmata) is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower.Contents1 Description 2 Shape 3 Style3.1 Structure 3.2 Attachment to the ovary 3.3 Pollination4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksDescription[edit]Stigma of a Tulipa
Tulipa
species, with pollenThe stigma, together with the style and ovary comprises the pistil, which in turn is part of the gynoecium or female reproductive organ of a plant. The stigma forms the distal portion of the style or stylodia. The stigma is composed of stigmatic papillae, the cells which are receptive to pollen. These may be restricted to the apex of the style or, especially in wind pollinated species, cover a wide surface.[1] The stigma receives pollen and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates
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Xylem
Xylem
Xylem
is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, phloem being the other. The basic function of xylem is to transport water from roots to shoots and leaves, but it also transports some nutrients.[1][2] The word "xylem" is derived from the Greek word ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood"; the best-known xylem tissue is wood, though it is found throughout the plant.[3] The term was introduced by Nägeli
Nägeli
in 1858.[4][5]Contents1 Structure 2 Primary and secondary xylem 3 Main function – upwards water transport3.1 Cohesion-tension theory 3.2 Measurement of pressure4 Evolution 5 Development5.1 Protoxylem and metaxylem 5.2 Patterns of protoxylem and metaxylem6 See also 7 References7.1 General referencesStructure[edit]Cross section of some xylem cellsThe most distinctive xylem cells are the long tracheary elements that transport water
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Marquesas
Coordinates: 9°27′16″S 139°23′20″W / 9.45444°S 139.38889°W / -9.45444; -139.38889Marquesas IslandsNative name: Îles Marquises / Te Fenua ʻEnata / Te Henua (K)enanaFlag of the Marquesas IslandsGeographyLocation Pacific OceanArchipelago PolynesiaTotal islands 15Major islands Nuku Hiva, Ua Pu, Ua Huka, Hiva ʻOa, Fatu HivaArea 1,049.3 km2 (405.1 sq mi)[1]Highest elevation 1,230 m (4,040 ft)Highest point Mount Oave
Oave
(Ua Pu)AdministrationFranceOverseas collectivity French PolynesiaCapital city Tai o HaeDemographicsPopulation 9,346[2] (Aug. 2017 census)Pop
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Borneo
Borneo
Borneo
(/ˈbɔːrnioʊ/; Malay: Pulau Borneo, Indonesian: Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.[note 1] At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra. The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia
Malaysia
and Brunei
Brunei
in the north, and Indonesia
Indonesia
to the south.[1] Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah
Sabah
and Sarawak
Sarawak
make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan
Labuan
is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo
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Madagascar
Madagascar
Madagascar
(/ˌmædəˈɡæskər/; Malagasy: Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar
Madagascar
(Malagasy: Repoblikan'i Madagasikara [republiˈkʲan madaɡasˈkʲarə̥]; French: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar
Madagascar
(the fourth-largest island in the world), and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar
Madagascar
split from the Indian peninsula
Indian peninsula
around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar
Madagascar
is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth
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Eudicot
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[1] The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Berry (botany)
In botany, a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary. Berries so defined include grapes, currants, and tomatoes, as well as cucumbers, eggplants (aubergines) and bananas, but exclude certain fruits commonly called berries, such as strawberries and raspberries. The berry is the most common type of fleshy fruit in which the entire outer layer of the ovary wall ripens into a potentially edible "pericarp". Berries may be formed from one or more carpels from the same flower (i.e. from a simple or a compound ovary). The seeds are usually embedded in the fleshy interior of the ovary, but there are some non-fleshy exceptions, such as peppers, with air rather than pulp around their seeds. Many berries are edible, but others, such as the fruits of the potato and the deadly nightshade, are poisonous to humans
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APG II System
The APG II system
APG II system
( Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[1] It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system. History[edit] APG II was published as: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436
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APG IV System
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Concepts3.1 Subsystem4 Analysis4.1 Cultural system 4.2 Economic system5 Application of the system concept5.1 In information and computer science 5.2 In engineering and physics 5.3 In social and cognitive sciences and management research 5.4 Pure logical systems 5.5 Applied to strategic thinking6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "system" comes from the Latin
Latin
word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2] History[edit] According to Marshall McLuhan,"System" means "something to look at"
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Clade
A clade (from Ancient Greek: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".[1] The common ancestor may be an individual, a population, a species (extinct or extant), and so on right up to a kingdom and further. Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms.[2] Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Amborellales
Amborella
Amborella
is a monotypic genus of understory shrubs or small trees endemic to the main island, Grande Terre, of New Caledonia.[4] The genus is the only member of the family Amborellaceae
Amborellaceae
and the order Amborellales
Amborellales
and contains a single species, Amborella
Amborella
trichopoda.[5] Amborella
Amborella
is of great interest to plant systematists because molecular phylogenetic analyses consistently place it as the sister group of the remaining flowering plants.Contents1 Description 2 Phylogeny 3 Classification3.1 Older systems4 Genomic and evolutionary considerations 5 Ecology 6 Conservation 7 Gallery 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksDescription[edit] Amborella
Amborella
is a sprawling shrub or small tree up to 8 m high
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