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Chinese Bronzes
Sets of RITUAL BRONZES are the most impressive surviving objects from the Chinese Bronze Age . During the Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, China became one of the most skilled bronze-working civilizations in the ancient world, as people heated, melted, and cast metal to making cooking utensils, tools, weapons, and other household items. Modern archaeologists see such preservation of how the ancient Chinese lived by interpreting from lacquer paintings on wood which helped preserve ancient Chinese bronze artifacts. Being from around 1650 BCE, these elaborately decorated vessels were deposited as grave goods in the tombs of royalty and the nobility, and were evidently produced in very large numbers, with documented excavations finding over 200 pieces in a single royal tomb
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Tomb Of Marquis Yi Of Zeng
A MARQUESS (UK : /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/ ; French : MARQUIS, ; Italian : marchese, Spanish : marqués, Portuguese : marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan
Japan
. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns
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Warring States Period
The WARRING STATES PERIOD (Chinese : 戰國時代; pinyin : Zhànguó shídài) was an era in ancient Chinese history following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state 's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
. Although different scholars point toward different dates ranging from 481 BC to 403 BC as the true beginning of the Warring States, Sima Qian 's choice of 475 BC is generally the most often cited and popularly accepted one. The Warring States era also overlaps with the second half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty , though the Chinese sovereign , known as the king of Zhou, ruled merely as a figurehead and served as a backdrop against the machinations of the warring states
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Qianlong Emperor
The QIANLONG EMPEROR (25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu
Manchu
-led Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China
China
proper . Born AISIN GIORO HONGLI, sometimes referred to simply as HONGLI, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor , he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796.1 On 8 February, he abdicated in favour of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor – a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor . Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power as the Emperor Emeritus (or Retired Emperor) until his death in 1799; he thus was the longest-reigning de facto ruler in the history of China, and dying at the age of 87, the longest-living
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Qing Dynasty
Tael (liǎng) PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Later Jin Shun Southern Ming
Southern Ming
Tungning (Ming Zheng) Dzungar Republic of China Mongolia
Mongolia
Formosa The QING DYNASTY, also known as the QING EMPIRE, officially the GREAT QING (English: /tʃɪŋ/ ), was the last imperial dynasty of China , established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and succeeded by the Republic of China . The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for the modern Chinese state . The dynasty was founded by the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria . In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci
Nurhaci
, originally a Ming vassal, began organizing "Banners ", military-social units that included Jurchen, Han Chinese, and Mongol elements
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Chinese Porcelain
CHINESE CERAMICS show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art
Chinese art
and ceramics globally. The first pottery was made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese ceramics
Chinese ceramics
range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court and for export. Porcelain
Porcelain
is so identified with China that it is still called "china" in everyday English usage. Most later Chinese ceramics, even of the finest quality, were made on an industrial scale, thus few names of individual potters were recorded
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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng ) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China
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Hubei Provincial Museum
HUBEI PROVINCIAL MUSEUM (Chinese : 湖北省博物馆) is one of the best-known museums in China, with a large amount of State-level historic and cultural relics. Established in 1953, the museum moved to its present location in 1960 and gained its present name in 1963. Since 1999 a number of new buildings have been added. The museum is located in the Wuchang District of Wuhan , Hubei Province, not far from the west shore of Wuhan's East Lake . It has a collection of over 200,000 objects, including the Sword of Goujian , an ancient set of bronze bells (Bianzhong ) and extensive artifacts from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng and the tombs at Baoshan . The particular importance of several of the archaeological items in the museum's collection has been recognized by the national government by including them into the short list of Chinese cultural relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad
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Ewer
In American English
American English
, a PITCHER is a container with a spout used for storing and pouring contents which are liquid in form . In English speaking countries outside North America, a JUG is any container with a handle and a mouth and spout for liquid—American "pitchers" are more likely to be called jugs elsewhere. Generally a pitcher also has a handle , which makes pouring easier. A EWER is a vase-shaped pitcher, often decorated, with a base and a flaring spout, though the word is now unusual in informal English describing ordinary domestic vessels. A notable ewer is the America\'s Cup , which is awarded to the winning team of the America's Cup sailing regatta match. Pitchers are generally a 1/2 gallon = 2 quarts = 4 pints = 64 fluid ounces
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The Walters Art Museum
Coordinates : 39°17′48″N 76°36′58″W / 39.29667°N 76.61611°W / 39.29667; -76.61611 The Walters Art Museum
The Walters Art Museum
North Charles Street original main entrance FORMER NAME The Walters Art Gallery ESTABLISHED 1934 (1934) LOCATION Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore
Baltimore
, Maryland
Maryland
TYPE Art museum DIRECTOR Julia Marciari-Alexander (2016) PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS Light Rail Hunt Valley – BWI Marshall Centre Street Station WEBSITE Official websiteThe WALTERS ART MUSEUM, located in Mount Vernon-Belvedere , Baltimore , Maryland
Maryland
, is a public art museum founded and opened in 1934. It holds collections established during the mid-19th century
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International Standard Book Number (identifier)
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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National Gallery Of Art
4.2 million (2012) * Ranked 2nd nationally * Ranked 8th globally DIRECTOR Earl A. Powell III PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS* Metro: * Red Line Judiciary Square * Yellow Line Green Line Archives * Blue Line Orange Line Silver Line Smithsonian * Metrobus : 4th Street and 7th Street NW * DC Circulator
DC Circulator
: 4th Street and Madison Drive; 9th Street and Constitution Avenue
Constitution Avenue
NW WEBSITE www.nga.govThe NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART, and its attached SCULPTURE GARDEN, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
, located on the National Mall , between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue
Constitution Avenue
NW. Open to the public and free of charge, the museum was privately established in 1937 for the American people by a joint resolution of the United States Congress . Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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History Of Chinese Archaeology
CHINESE ARCHAEOLOGY has been practiced since the Song Dynasty with early practices of antiquarianism . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 References HISTORY Further information: Song_dynasty § Archaeology During the Song Dynasty (960–1279), the Chinese gentry's antiquarian pursuits of art collecting, scholar-officials retrieved ancient relics from archaeological sites in order to revive the use of ancient vessels in ceremonies of state ritual. Scholar-officials claimed to have discovered ancient bronze vessels that were created as far back as the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BCE), which bore the written characters of the Shang era . Some attempted to recreate these bronze vessels by using imagination alone, not by observing tangible evidence of relics, a practice criticized by Shen Kuo in his Dream Pool Essays published in 1088
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Shang Dynasty
The SHANG DYNASTY (Chinese : 商朝; pinyin : Shāng cháo) or YIN DYNASTY (殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography , ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents , Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian
Records of the Grand Historian
. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin , the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project dated them from c. 1600 to 1046 BC
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