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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Situ (surname)
Situ, also romanised from Cantonese
Cantonese
as Szeto or Seto, or from Taishanese as Soohoo, is one of the more common surviving Chinese compound surnames.[1] It originated from the ancient Chinese title Situ, which can be translated as "Minister over the Masses".[2][3] The surname is common in Guangdong
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Commoner
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy. Whereas historically many civilizations have institutionalized the notion of a common class within society, since the 20th century the term common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to the highly privileged (in either wealth or influence)
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Defence Minister
The title Defence Minister, Minister for Defence, Minister of National Defense, Secretary of Defence, Secretary of State for Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states. The role of a defence minister varies considerably from country to country; in some the minister is only in charge of general budget matters and procurement of equipment; while in others the minister is also, in addition, an integral part of the operational military chain of command. Prior to the 20th century, there were in most countries separate ministerial posts for the land forces (often called "minister for war") and the naval forces. In the interwar period, some countries created a separate ministerial post in charge of the air forces
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Musician
A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.[1] Anyone who composes, conducts, or performs music may be referred to as a musician.[2] A musician who plays a musical instrument is also known as an instrumentalist. Musicians can specialize in any musical style, and some musicians play in a variety of different styles depending on cultures and background. Examples of a musician's possible skills include performing, conducting, singing, rapping, producing, composing, arranging, and the orchestration of music.[3]Contents1 Medieval musicians1.1 Notable musicians2 Renaissance
Renaissanc

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Column (formation)
A military column is a formation of soldiers marching together in one or more files in which the file is significantly longer than the width of ranks in the formation
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Taishi (surname)
Taishi ([tʰâiʂɻ̩̀], Chinese: 太史; pinyin: Tàishǐ; Wade–Giles: T'ai4-shih3) is a Chinese compound surname. Taishi literally means Grand Historian, a high official in ancient imperial China
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Adviser
An adviser or advisor is normally a person with more and deeper knowledge in a specific area and usually also includes persons with cross-functional and multidisciplinary expertise. An adviser's role is that of a mentor or guide and differs categorically from that of a task-specific consultant
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Librarian
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming. In addition, librarians provide instruction on information literacy
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Historian
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and his regarded as an authority on it.[1] Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline
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Yuan Taotu
Yuan Taotu 轅濤塗 (died c. 625 BC, posthumous title "Xuanzhong" 宣仲) was a nobleman and diplomat of the Spring and Autumn state of Chen. He is regarded as the ancestor of those surnamed Yuan (袁). Yuan Taotu was a distant relative of the Chen royal family, with a fief at Yangxia (Taikang, Henan
Henan
province). He is mentioned in passing in the Spring and Autumn Annals, Zuo Zhuan
Zuo Zhuan
and Historical Records. In 656 BC, he accompanied Duke Huan of Qi
Duke Huan of Qi
on an expedition against the southern state of Cai and was present at the historic covenant of alliance between the various states of the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley at Shaoling. On the return journey to the north, however, he suggested that the army of Qi pass by Chen and take a detour to the eastern regions
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Courtesy Name
A courtesy name (Chinese: 字, zi), also known as a style name,[1] is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.[2] This practice is a tradition in East Asian cultures, including China, Japan, Korea
Korea
and Vietnam.[3] Formerly in China, the zi would replace a male's given name when he turned twenty, as a symbol of adulthood and respect.[citation needed] It could be given either by the parents or by the first personal teacher on the first day of family school. Females might substitute their given name for a zi upon marriage
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Sinicization
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese
Han Chinese
culture and societal norms. Areas of influence include diet, writing, industry, education, language, law, lifestyle, politics, philosophy, religion, science and technology, culture, and value systems. More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China
China
onto neighboring East Asian countries. Evidence of this can be seen in the value systems, cuisine, architectural style, and lexicons
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Chinese Character
Chinese characters
Chinese characters
are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese. Occasionally, they are also used for writing Korean, Vietnamese and some other Asian languages. In Standard Chinese, they are called Hanzi (simplified Chinese: 汉字; traditional Chinese: 漢字, lit "Han characters").[2][3][4] They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, including Korean, where they are known as Hanja
Hanja
(漢字), Japanese, where they are known as Kanji
Kanji
(漢字), Vietnamese, in a system known as Chữ Nôm, and Zhuang, in a system known as Sawndip. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters
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Shang Dynasty
The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(/ʃɑːŋ/;[2] Chinese: 商朝; pinyin: Shāng cháo) or Yin dynasty (/jɪn/; 殷代; Yīn dài), according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
and followed by the Zhou dynasty. The classic account of the Shang comes from texts such as the Book of Documents, Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian. According to the traditional chronology based on calculations made approximately 2,000 years ago by Liu Xin, the Shang ruled from 1766 to 1122 BC, but according to the chronology based upon the "current text" of Bamboo Annals, they ruled from 1556 to 1046 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
dated them from c
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Matriarchal
Matriarchy is a social system in which females (most notably in mammals) hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of males - at least to a large degree. While those definitions apply in general English, definitions specific to the disciplines of anthropology and feminism differ in some respects. Most anthropologists hold that there are no known anthropological societies that are unambiguously matriarchal, but some authors believe exceptions may exist or may have. Matriarchies may also be confused with matrilineal, matrilocal, and matrifocal societies
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