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Chinese Martial Arts
Chinese martial arts, often named under the umbrella terms kung fu (/ˈkʊŋ ˈfuː/; Chinese: 功夫; pinyin: gōngfu; Cantonese
Cantonese
Yale: gūng fū) and wushu (武術; wǔshù), are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as "families" (家; jiā), "sects" (派; pài) or "schools" (門; mén) of martial arts. Examples of such traits include Shaolinquan (少林拳) physical exercises involving Five Animals (五形) mimicry, or training methods inspired by Old Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles that focus on qi manipulation are called internal (内家拳; nèijiāquán), while others that concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness are called "external" (外家拳; wàijiāquán)
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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28th Century BC
The 2 8th century BC
8th century BC
was a century which lasted from the year 2800 BC to 2701 BC. Events[edit]c. 2800 BC – 2700 BC: Seated Harp Player, from Keros, Cyclades, is made. It is now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 2775 BC – 2650 BC: Second Dynasty wars in Ancient Egypt. Around 2773 BC - the 365-day calendar is introduced in Egypt. 2750 BC: End of the Early Dynastic I Period, and the beginning of the Early Dynastic II Period in Mesopotamia. c. 2750 BC: Estimated ending of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
in the region of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and southwestern Ukraine c
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Self-defense
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.[1] The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions, but the interpretation varies widely.[2]Contents1 Physical1.1 Unarmed 1.2 Armed2 Mental 3 Other forms3.1 Avoidance 3.2 De-escalation 3.3 Personal alarms4 Self-defense
Self-defense
education4.1 ACS Algerien combat système 4.2 Farid Guendouze système5 Legal aspects5.1 Application of the law6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPhysical[edit] Ju-Jitsu
Ju-Jitsu
defence against a knife attack. Berlin
Berlin
1924Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence. Such force can be either armed or unarmed
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Hand-to-hand Combat
Hand-to-hand combat
Hand-to-hand combat
(sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or non-lethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance, or within the physical reach of a handheld weapon) that does not involve the use of ranged weapons.[1] While the phrase "hand-to-hand" appears to refer to unarmed combat, the term is generic and may include use of melee weapons such as knives, sticks, batons, spears, or improvised weapons such as entrenching tools.[1] While the term hand-to-hand combat originally referred principally to engagements by combatants on the battlefield, it can also refer to any personal physical engagement by two or more people, including law enforcement officers, civilians, and criminals.[1] Combat
Combat
within close quarters (to a range just beyond grappling distance) is commonly termed close combat or close-quarters combat
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Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living creatures, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting, crime, law enforcement, self-defense, and warfare. In broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary or enemy target. While ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs, swords and guns, to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles, biological and cyberweapons
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Nanjing Decade
The Nanking
Nanking
decade Chinese: 南京十年 Nánjīng shí nián, or The Golden decade, Chinese: 黃金十年 Huángjīn shí nián) is an informal name for the decade from 1927 (or 1928) to 1937 in the Republic of China. It began when Nationalist Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek took Nanjing
Nanjing
from Zhili clique
Zhili clique
warlord Sun Chuanfang
Sun Chuanfang
halfway through the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
in 1927. Chiang declared it to be the national capital despite the left-wing Nationalist government in Wuhan. The Wuhan
Wuhan
faction gave in and the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
continued until the Beiyang government
Beiyang government
in Beijing
Beijing
was overthrown in 1928
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Central Guoshu Institute
The Central Guoshu Institute (simplified Chinese: 中央国术馆; traditional Chinese: 中央國術館; pinyin: zhōng yāng guó shù guǎn; literally: "Central Martial Arts Academy"); was established in Nanjing by the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1928 for the propagation of Chinese martial arts, and was an important center of martial arts during the Nanjing decade. Guoshu (also spelled Kuoshu) 國術 "national art" was the term for martial arts adopted by the Republic of China at the time
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Kuomintang
The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
of China[6][7] (/ˈkwoʊˌmɪnˈtɑːŋ, -ˈtæŋ/,[8] KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China)[9] is a major political party in the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC or Taiwan). The predecessor of the KMT, the Revolutionary Alliance
Revolutionary Alliance
(Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic
Republic
of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
shortly after the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he later ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai
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People's Republic Of China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Xia Dynasty
The Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
(/ʃjɑː/)[1] is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history. It is described in ancient historical chronicles such as the Bamboo Annals, the Classic of History
Classic of History
and the Records of the Grand Historian. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
was established by the legendary Yu the Great
Yu the Great
after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors gave his throne to him.[2] The Xia was later succeeded by the Shang dynasty. According to the traditional chronology based upon calculations by Liu Xin, the Xia ruled between 2205 and 1766 BC; according to the chronology based upon the Bamboo Annals, it ruled between 1989 and 1558 BC. The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project
commissioned by the Chinese government in 1996, concluded that the Xia existed between 2070 and 1600 BC
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Yellow Emperor
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi (/ˈhwɑːŋ ˈdiː/),[2] is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors
and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity
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Chi You
Chiyou
Chiyou
(蚩尤) was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe (九黎) in ancient China.[1] He is best known as the tyrant who fought against the future Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
during the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors era in Chinese mythology.[1][2][3] For the Hmong people, Chiyou[4] was a sagacious mythical king.[5] He has a particularly complex and controversial ancestry, as he may fall under Dongyi[1] Miao[5] or even Man,[5] depending on the source and view
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Kempō
Kenpō (拳法) is the name of several Japanese martial arts. The word kenpō is a Japanese translation of the Chinese word "quán fǎ". This term is often informally transliterated as "kempo", as a result of applying Traditional Hepburn romanization,[1] but failing to use a macron to indicate the long vowel
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Shuai Jiao
Shuai jiao
Shuai jiao
(Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; pinyin: Shuāijiāo; Wade–Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the term pertaining to the ancient jacket wrestling Kung-Fu
Kung-Fu
style of Beijing, Tianjin
Tianjin
and Baoding
Baoding
of Hebei Province in the North China
China
Plain which was codified by Shan Pu Ying (善撲营 The Battalion of Excellency in Catching) of the Nei Wu Fu (内務府, Internal Administration Unit of Imperial Household Department). In modern usage it is also the general Mandarin Chinese term for any form of wrestling, both inside and outside China
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