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Children’s Literature
CHILDREN\'S LITERATURE or JUVENILE LITERATURE includes stories, books, magazines, and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature
Children's literature
can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition , that adults shared with children before publishing existed. The development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. Even after printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were originally created for adults and later adapted for a younger audience. Since the 15th century, a large quantity of literature, often with a moral or religious message, has been aimed specifically at children
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Children's Literature (journal)
CHILDREN’S LITERATURE is an academic journal and annual publication of the Modern Language Association and the Children’s Literature Association Division on Children's Literature. The journal was founded in 1972 by Francelia Butler and promotes a scholarly approach to the study of children’s literature by printing theoretical articles and essays, as well as book reviews. The publication is currently edited by Amanda Cockrell, of Hollins University in Roanoke, Virginia. The current editor in chief is R. H. W. Dillard. Children's Literature is published annually in May by the Johns Hopkins University Press . Each issue has an average length of 300 pages
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The Children's Book
THE CHILDREN\'S BOOK is a 2009 novel by British writer A.S. Byatt . It follows the adventures of several inter-related families, adults and children, from 1895 through World War I
World War I
. Loosely based upon the life of children's writer E. Nesbit there are secrets slowly revealed that show that the families are much more creatively formed than first guessed. It was shortlisted for the 2009 Man Booker Prize . The Wellwood family (Olive, Humphrey, Olive's sister Violet, and many children) are Fabians
Fabians
, living in a world of artists, writers, craftsman, all moving into new ways to express art, and living an artful life, before the horrors and loss of the Great War. While the central character of Olive is a writer of children's literature, supporting her large family with her writing, the title of the book refers to the children in the book: Tom, Julian, Philip, Elsie, Dorothy, Hedda, Griselda, Florence, Charles/Karl, Phyllis and others, following each as they approach adulthood and the terrors of war. In an interview with The Guardian
The Guardian
Byatt says: "I started with the idea that writing children's books isn't good for the writers' own children. There are some dreadful stories. Christopher Robin at least lived. Kenneth Grahame's son put himself across a railway line and waited for the train. Then there's JM Barrie
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Children's Story
"CHILDREN\'S STORY" is a song recorded by hip hop artist Slick Rick . Taken as the second single from his album The Great Adventures of Slick Rick , the song was a Top 5 hit on both the Hot R&B Singles and the Hot Rap Tracks charts. It is one of the most sampled rap songs of all time. CONTENTS * 1 Samples used * 2 Reception * 3 Commercial Performance * 4 Covers * 5 Adaptations * 6 Samples * 7 References * 8 External links SAMPLES USEDThe song interpolates the notes of the bassline from Bob James 's song "Nautilus ". RECEPTION About.com listed it at 44 on their list of the top 100 rap songs, and is ranked #61 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop. COMMERCIAL PERFORMANCE Children's Story reached 5 in the Hot R including shots towards Jermaine Dupri and Canibus . It follows the flow and concept as the original, including the intro of children asking "Marshall, will you please tell us a bedtime story?". * The Game on his 2008 Mixtape BWS Radio 5; and was entitled "Compton's Story". He uses an accent much like Slick Rick's throughout the song.In 2004, "Children's Story" appeared in the video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas , on classic hip hop radio station Playback FM . The song was also featured on the True Crime: New York City soundtrack and Tony Hawk\'s Proving Ground
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Jessie Willcox Smith
JESSIE WILLCOX SMITH (September 6, 1863 – May 3, 1935) was a prominent female illustrator in the United States
United States
during the Golden Age of American illustration and "one of the greatest pure illustrators". She was a prolific contributor to respected books and magazines during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. She illustrated stories and articles for clients such as _Century _, _Collier\'s _, _Leslie\'s Weekly _, _Harper\'s _, _McClure\'s _, _Scribners _, and the _Ladies\' Home Journal _. She had an ongoing relationship with _ Good Housekeeping _, including the long-running Mother Goose
Mother Goose
series of illustrations and then creating all the covers from December 1917 to 1933. Among the more than 60 books that Smith illustrated were Louisa May Alcott 's _ Little Women _ and _An Old-Fashioned Girl _, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 's _ Evangeline
Evangeline
_, and Robert Louis Stevenson 's _A Child\'s Garden of Verses _
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The Adventures Of Pinocchio
THE ADVENTURES OF PINOCCHIO (/pɪˈnoʊki.oʊ/ pi-NOH-kee-oh ; Italian : Le avventure di Pinocchio
Pinocchio
) is a novel for children by Italian author Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi
, written in Pescia
Pescia
. The first half was originally a serial in 1881 and 1882, published as La storia di un burattino (literally "The tale of a puppet"), and then later completed as a book for children in February 1883. It is about the mischievous adventures of an animated marionette named Pinocchio
Pinocchio
and his father, a poor woodcarver named Geppetto . It is considered a canonical piece of children\'s literature and has inspired hundreds of new editions, stage plays, merchandising and movies, such as Walt Disney
Walt Disney
's iconic animated version and commonplace ideas such as a liar's long nose. According to extensive research done by the Fondazione Nazionale Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi
in late 1990s and based on UNESCO
UNESCO
sources, it has been adapted in over 260 languages worldwide. That makes it the most translated non-religious book in the world, and one of the best-selling books ever published. According to Francelia Butler , it remains "the most widely read book in the world after the Bible
Bible
"
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List Of Best-selling Books
This page provides LISTS OF BEST-SELLING INDIVIDUAL BOOKS AND BOOK SERIES to date and in any language. "Best selling" refers to the estimated number of copies sold of each book, rather than the number of books printed or currently owned. Comics and textbooks are not included in this list. The books are listed according to the highest sales estimate as reported in reliable, independent sources. This list is incomplete because there are many books, such as The Betrothed by Alessandro Manzoni , The Count of Monte Cristo
The Count of Monte Cristo
by Alexandre Dumas
Alexandre Dumas
, or A Christmas Carol
A Christmas Carol
by Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens
, that are commonly cited as "best-selling books" yet have no reliable sales figures because of the many public domain re-releases. According to Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records
, the Bible
Bible
is the best-selling book of all time with over 5 billion copies sold and distributed
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Oral Tradition
ORAL TRADITION, or ORAL LORE, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another. The transmission is through speech or song and may include folktales, ballads, chants, prose or verses. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history , oral literature , oral law and other knowledge across generations without a writing system , or in parallel to a writing system. Indian religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, for example, have used an oral tradition, in parallel to a writing system, to transmit their canonical scriptures, secular knowledge such as Sushruta Samhita , hymns and mythologies from one generation to the next. Oral tradition is information, memories and knowledge held in common by a group of people, over many generations, and it is not same as testimony or oral history . In a general sense, "oral tradition" refers to the recall and transmission of a specific, preserved textual and cultural knowledge through vocal utterance. As an academic discipline , it refers both to a set of objects of study and a method by which they are studied. The study of oral tradition is distinct from the academic discipline of oral history , which is the recording of personal memories and histories of those who experienced historical eras or events
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The Little Prince
_THE LITTLE PRINCE_ (French: _Le Petit Prince_; French pronunciation: ​ ), first published in 1943, is a novella , the most famous work of French aristocrat, writer, poet, and pioneering aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry (1900–1944). The novella is one of the most-translated books in the world and was voted the best book of the 20th century in France. Translated into 300 languages and dialects (as well as Braille
Braille
), selling nearly two million copies annually with sales totaling over 140 million copies worldwide, it has become one of the best-selling books ever published. After the outbreak of the Second World War
Second World War
Saint-Exupéry was exiled to North America. In the midst of personal upheavals and failing health, he produced almost half of the writings for which he would be remembered, including a tender tale of loneliness, friendship, love, and loss, in the form of a young prince fallen to Earth. An earlier memoir by the author had recounted his aviation experiences in the Sahara
Sahara
Desert , and he is thought to have drawn on those same experiences in _The Little Prince_. Since its first publication in the United States, the novella has been adapted to numerous art forms and media, including audio recordings, radio plays, live stage, film, television, ballet, and operatic works
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Fiction
FICTION is the classification for any story or setting that is imaginary —in other words, not based strictly on history or fact. Fiction can be expressed in a variety of formats, including writings , live performances , films , television programs , animations , video games , and role-playing games , though the term originally and most commonly refers to the narrative forms of literature (see _literary_ fiction ), including novels , novellas , short stories , and plays . Fiction is occasionally used in its narrowest sense to mean simply any "literary narrative". A work of fiction is an act of creative imagination, so its total faithfulness to reality is not typically assumed by its audience. Therefore, fiction is not expected to present only characters who are actual people or descriptions that are factually accurate. Instead, the context of fiction, not adhering precisely to the real world, is generally open to interpretation . Characters and events within a fictional work may even be openly set in their own context entirely separate from the known universe: a fictional universe that stands on its own. Fiction is regarded as the traditional opposite of non-fiction , whose creators assume responsibility for presenting only the historical and factual truth; however, the distinction between fiction and non-fiction can be blurred, for example, in postmodern literature
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Non-fiction
NON-FICTION or NONFICTION is content (sometimes, in the form of a story ) whose creator, in good faith , assumes responsibility for the truth or accuracy of the events, people, or information presented. In contrast, a story whose creator explicitly leaves open if and how the work refers to reality is usually classified as fiction . Nonfiction, which may be presented either objectively or subjectively , is traditionally one of the two main divisions of narratives (and, specifically, prose writing), the other traditional division being fiction , which contrasts with nonfiction by dealing in information, events, and characters expected to be partly or largely imaginary. Nonfiction's specific factual assertions and descriptions may or may not be accurate, and can give either a true or a false account of the subject in question. However, authors of such accounts genuinely believe or claim them to be truthful at the time of their composition or, at least, pose them to a convinced audience as historically or empirically factual. Reporting the beliefs of others in a nonfiction format is not necessarily an endorsement of the ultimate veracity of those beliefs, it is simply saying it is true that people believe them (for such topics as mythology ). Nonfiction can also be written about fiction , typically known as literary criticism , giving information and analysis on these other works
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Poetry
POETRY (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, _poiesis _, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language —such as phonaesthetics , sound symbolism , and metre —to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning . Poetry
Poetry
has a long history , dating back to the Sumerian _Epic of Gilgamesh _. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese _ Shijing
Shijing
_, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit _ Vedas
Vedas
_, Zoroastrian _ Gathas _, and the Homeric epics, the _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and the _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
's _ Poetics _, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric , drama , song and comedy . Later attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme , and emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. From the mid-20th century, poetry has sometimes been more generally regarded as a fundamental creative act employing language. Poetry
Poetry
uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses
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Drama
DRAMA is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance . Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle 's _Poetics _ (c. 335 BCE)—the earliest work of dramatic theory . The term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action " (Classical Greek : δρᾶμα, _drama_), which is derived from "I do" (Classical Greek : δράω, _drao_). The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy . They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses , Thalia , and Melpomene . Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face). In English (as was the analogous case in many other European languages), the word "play " or "game" (translating the Anglo-Saxon _plèga_ or Latin _ludus_) was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare 's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre ". The use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific _type_ of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play that is _neither_ a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola\'s _ Thérèse Raquin _ (1873 ) or Chekhov\'s _Ivanov _ (1887 )
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Comic Book
A COMIC BOOK or COMICBOOK, also called COMIC MAGAZINE or simply COMIC, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are often accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative, usually dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan and 1830s Europe, comic books were first popularized in the United States during the 1930s. The first modern comic book, _Famous Funnies _, was released in the United States in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips , which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term _comic book_ derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; however, this practice was replaced by featuring stories of all genres, usually not humorous in tone
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Cartoon Book
A COMIC BOOK or COMICBOOK, also called COMIC MAGAZINE or simply COMIC, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are often accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative, usually dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan and 1830s Europe, comic books were first popularized in the United States during the 1930s. The first modern comic book, Famous Funnies , was released in the United States in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips , which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; however, this practice was replaced by featuring stories of all genres, usually not humorous in tone
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Genre
GENRE (/ˈʒɒ̃rə/ , /ˈʒɒnrə/ or /ˈdʒɒnrə/ ; from French _genre_ , "kind" or "sort", from Latin _genus_ (stem _gener-_), Greek γένος, _génos_) is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed upon conventions developed over time. Genre
Genre
is most popularly known as a category of literature , music , or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as new genres are invented and the use of old ones is discontinued. Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed upon or socially inferred conventions. Some genres may be rigid with strictly adhered to guidelines while others may be very flexible. Genre
Genre
began as an absolute classification system for ancient Greek literature . Poetry
Poetry
, prose , and performance each had a specific and calculated style that related to the theme of the story
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