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Chiefdom
A CHIEFDOM is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship , and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Chiefdoms in Archaeological Theory * 1.2 Simple * 1.3 Complex * 2 Chiefdoms on the Indian subcontinent * 3 Native Chieftain System in southern China * 4 Alternatives to chiefdoms * 5 See also * 6 Bibliography * 7 References * 8 External links OVERVIEWIn anthropological theory , one model of human social development rooted in ideas of cultural evolution describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society , and less complex than a state or a civilization
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Moka Exchange
The MOKA is a highly ritualized system of exchange in the Mount Hagen area, Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
, that has become emblematic of the anthropological concepts of "gift economy" and of "Big man " political system. Moka are reciprocal gifts of pigs through which social status is achieved. Moka refers specifically to the increment in the size of the gift; giving more brings greater prestige to the giver. However, the reciprocal gift giving may be confused with profit-seeking, as the lending and borrowing of money at interest. This gift exchange system was analyzed by anthropologist Marshall Sahlins as a means of distinguishing between the exchange principles of reciprocity and redistribution on the one hand, and the associated political principles of status and rank on the other
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Europe And The People Without History
EUROPE AND THE PEOPLE WITHOUT HISTORY is a book by anthropologist Eric Wolf . First published in 1982, it focuses on the expansion of European societies in the Modern Era . "Europe and the people without history" is history written on a global scale, tracing the connections between communities, regions, peoples and nations that are usually treated as discrete subjects. A GLOBAL HISTORYThe book begins in 1400 with a description of the trade routes a world traveller might have encountered, the people and societies they connected, and the civilizational processes trying to incorporate them. From this, Wolf traces the emergence of Europe as a global power, and the reorganization of particular world regions for the production of goods now meant for global consumption. Wolf differs from World Systems theory in that he sees the growth of Europe until the late eighteenth century operating in a tributory framework, and not capitalism
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Georges Balandier
GEORGES BALANDIER (21 December 1920 – 5 October 2016) was a French sociologist , anthropologist and ethnologist noted for his research in Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
. Balandier was born in Aillevillers-et-Lyaumont . He was a professor at the Sorbonne (Université René Descartes, Paris-V), and is a member of the Center for African Studies (Centre d'études africaines ), a research center of the École pratique des hautes études (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences). He held for many years the Editorship of Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie (previously held by his mentor Georges Gurvitch ) and edited the series Sociologie d'Aujourd'hui at Presses Universitaires de France . He died on 5 October 2016 at the age of 95
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E. E. Evans-Pritchard
SIR EDWARD EVAN EVANS-PRITCHARD, FBA (21 September 1902 – 11 September 1973), known as E. E. EVANS-PRITCHARD, was an English anthropologist who was instrumental in the development of social anthropology . He was Professor of Social Anthropology
Anthropology
at the University of Oxford
Oxford
from 1946 to 1970. CONTENTS * 1 Education and field work * 2 Later theories * 3 Life and family * 4 Honours * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 Bibliography * 8 References * 9 External links EDUCATION AND FIELD WORKEvans-Pritchard was educated at Winchester College and studied history at Exeter College, Oxford
Oxford
, where he was influenced by R. R. Marett , and then as a postgraduate at the London School of Economics (LSE)
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Political Economy In Anthropology
POLITICAL ECONOMY in anthropology is the application of the theories and methods of Historical Materialism to the traditional concerns of anthropology, including, but not limited to, non-capitalist societies. Political Economy introduced questions of history and colonialism to ahistorical anthropological theories of social structure and culture. Most anthropologists moved away from modes of production analysis typical of structural Marxism, and focused instead on the complex historical relations of class, culture and hegemony in regions undergoing complex colonial and capitalist transitions in the emerging world system. Political Economy was introduced in American anthropology primarily through the support of Julian Steward , a student of Kroeber . Steward’s research interests centered on “subsistence” — the dynamic interaction of man, environment, technology, social structure, and the organization of work
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Meyer Fortes
MEYER FORTES (April 25, 1906 – January 27, 1983) was a South African -born anthropologist , best known for his work among the Tallensi and Ashanti in Ghana
Ghana
. Originally trained in psychology , Fortes employed the notion of the "person" into his structural-functional analyses of kinship , the family, and ancestor worship setting a standard for studies on African social organization . His famous book, Oedipus and Job in West African Religion (1959), fused his two interests and set a standard for comparative ethnology . He also wrote extensively on issues of the first born , kingship , and divination . Fortes received his anthropological training from Charles Gabriel Seligman at the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
. Fortes also trained with Bronisław Malinowski and Raymond Firth
Raymond Firth
. Along with contemporaries A. R
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Negara
NEGARA may refer to: * Negara, Bali , a city in Bali * Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali , a book by anthropologist Clifford Geertz . * Negara Brunei Darussalam , a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo
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Left–right Paradigm
The LEFT–RIGHT PARADIGM is a concept from political sciences and anthropology which proposes that societies have a tendency to divide themselves into ideological opposites. Important contributions to the theory of the paradigm were made by British social anthropologist Rodney Needham , who saw it as a basic human classifying device. It shares affinity with the cultural "romantic-classic" paradigm. The term is used to analyze political discourse since the 19th century. It has, however, been suggested that in the 21st century the paradigm will become less useful as a tool of social and political analysis; some of the major current issues (such as global overpopulation , individual liberties and biological warfare ) cannot be said to allow for either a left- or right-wing perspective
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Carneiro's Circumscription Theory
CARNEIRO\'S CIRCUMSCRIPTION THEORY is a theory of the role of warfare in state formation in political anthropology , created by anthropologist Robert Carneiro (1927- ). The theory has been summarized in one sentence by Schacht: “In areas of circumscribed agricultural land, population pressure led to warfare that resulted in the evolution of the state”. The more circumscribed is an agricultural area, Carneiro argues, the sooner it politically unifies. CONTENTS * 1 Outline of the theory * 2 Primary and secondary state development * 3 Later development * 4 Criticism * 5 Confirmation * 6 References * 7 Bibliography * 8 External links OUTLINE OF THE THEORYThe theory begins with some assumptions. Warfare usually disperses people rather than uniting them. Environmental circumscription occurs when an area of productive agricultural land is surrounded by a less productive area such as the mountains, desert, or sea
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Kapu
KAPU is the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics and religion. An offense that was kapu was often a corporal offense, but also often denoted a threat to spiritual power, or theft of mana . Kapus were strictly enforced. Breaking one, even unintentionally, often meant immediate death, Koʻo kapu. The concept is related to taboo and the tapu or tabu found in other Polynesian cultures. The Hawaiian word kapu is usually translated to English as "forbidden", though it also carries the meanings of "keep out", "no trespassing", "sacred", "consecrated", or "holy". The opposite of kapu is noa, meaning "common" or "free"
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Political Anthropology
POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY concerns the structure of political systems , looked at from the basis of the structure of societies. Political anthropologists include Pierre Clastres , E. E. Evans-Pritchard , Meyer Fortes , Georges Balandier , F.G. Bailey , Jeremy Boissevain , Marc Abélès, Ted C. Lewellen , Robert L. Carneiro , John Borneman and Joan Vincent. CONTENTS* 1 History of political anthropology * 1.1 From stateless anthropology to an anthropology in and of the state * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References HISTORY OF POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Political anthropology has its roots in the 19th century. At that time, thinkers such as Lewis H. Morgan and Sir Henry Maine tried to trace the evolution of human society from 'primitive' or 'savage' societies to more 'advanced' ones
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Technology, Tradition, And The State In Africa
TECHNOLOGY, TRADITION AND THE STATE IN AFRICA is a book studying the indigenous political systems of sub-Saharan Africa written by the British social anthropologist Jack Goody (1919–2015), then a professor at St. John's College, Cambridge University . It was first published in 1971 by Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
for the International African Institute . Divided into five chapters, the short book is devoted to Goody's argument that former scholars studying sub-Saharan Africa had made mistakes by comparing its historical development to that in Europe, believing the two to be fundamentally different due to technological differences between the two continents. In particular he criticises the idea that African political systems were ever feudal , believing that such a concept – while applicable to Medieval Europe – was not applicable to pre-colonial Africa
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Network Analysis And Ethnographic Problems
NETWORK ANALYSIS AND ETHNOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS: PROCESS MODELS OF A TURKISH NOMAD CLAN is an anthropological and complexity science book by social anthropologists Douglas R. White , University of California, Irvine , and Ulla Johansen of the University of Cologne . It is considered an important publication in anthropology and the political science of Central Asia. The breakthrough is to code and portray the data of a longitudinal ethnography of a given people as a complex interactive system , in this case from an ethnogenesis in the late 18th century in Turkey
Turkey
to the present date, based on the detailed genealogies and chronicles recorded in fieldwork carried out between 1956 and 2004 recorded by ethnographer Ulla Johansen . The analysis of these data provides for an account of social dynamics relevant to many parts of the Middle East
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Cargo Cult
A CARGO CULT is a millenarian movement first described in Melanesia which encompasses a range of practices and occurs in the wake of contact with more technologically advanced societies. The name derives from the belief which began among Melanesians in the late 19th and early 20th century that various ritualistic acts such as the building of an airplane runway will result in the appearance of material wealth, particularly highly desirable Western goods (i.e., "cargo "), via Western airplanes. Cargo cults often develop during a combination of crises. Under conditions of social stress, such a movement may form under the leadership of a charismatic figure. This leader may have a "vision " (or "myth-dream") of the future, often linked to an ancestral efficacy ("mana ") thought to be recoverable by a return to traditional morality
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F. G. Bailey
FREDERICK GEORGE BAILEY (born 1924) is a British social anthropologist . He received his Ph.D. in social anthropology from Manchester University , working under Max Gluckman , and is closely associated with the Manchester School of social anthropology. A prolific writer, he is probably best known for his studies of local and organizational politics. He has conducted fieldwork in Bisipāra, Orissa, India , and has also written on political functions, particularly the ways that social structure arises out of and is used by the interactions of individuals. Bailey was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1976 At the time he was a Professor at the University of Sussex . He is professor emeritus in the department of anthropology at the University of California, San Diego . SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY * Bailey, F. G
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