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Chicago Race Riot Of 1919
The CHICAGO RACE RIOT OF 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago
Chicago
, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3. During the riot, thirty-eight people died (23 black and 15 white) and over five hundred were injured. It is considered the worst of the approximately 25 riots during the Red Summer , so named because of the violence and fatalities across the nation. The combination of prolonged arson , looting , and murder made it the worst race riot in the history of Illinois
Illinois
. The sociopolitical atmosphere of Chicago
Chicago
was one of ethnic tension caused by competition among many new groups. With the Great Migration , thousands of African Americans
African Americans
from the South had settled next to neighborhoods of European immigrants on Chicago's South Side , near jobs in the stockyards and meatpacking plants
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Douglas, Chicago
DOUGLAS, on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
, is one of 77 Chicago
Chicago
community areas . The neighborhood is named for Stephen A. Douglas , an Illinois
Illinois
politician, whose estate included a tract of land given to the federal government. This tract later was developed for use as the Civil War Union training and prison camp, Camp Douglas , located in what is now the eastern portion of the Douglas neighborhood. Douglas gave that part of his estate at Cottage Grove and 35th to the Old University of Chicago
Chicago
. The Chicago
Chicago
2016 Olympic bid planned for the Olympic Village to be constructed on a 37-acre (150,000 m2) truck parking lot south of McCormick Place that is mostly in the Douglas community area and partly in the Near South Side
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Community Areas In Chicago
A COMMUNITY is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) who have something in common, such as norms , religion , values , or identity . Communities often share a sense of place that is situated in a given geographical area (e.g. a country, village, town, or neighborhood) or in virtual space through communication platforms. Durable relations that extend beyond immediate genealogical ties also define a sense of community. People tend to define those social ties as important to their identity, practice, and roles in social institutions like family, home, work, government, society, or humanity, at large. Although communities are usually small relative to personal social ties (micro-level), "community" may also refer to large group affiliations (or macro-level), such as national communities , international communities , and virtual communities
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Chicago, Illinois
CHICAGO (/ʃɪˈkɑːɡoʊ/ ( listen ) or /ʃɪˈkɔːɡoʊ/ ), officially the CITY OF CHICAGO, is the third-most populous city in the United States
United States
. With over 2.7 million residents, it is also the most populous city in both the state of Illinois
Illinois
and the Midwestern United States . It is the county seat of Cook County
Cook County
. The Chicago metropolitan area , often referred to as Chicagoland, has nearly 10 million people and is the third-largest in the U.S. Chicago
Chicago
has often been called a global architecture capital. Chicago
Chicago
is considered one of the most important business centers in the world
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " (
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Red Summer (1919)
The RED SUMMER refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of race riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county. In most instances, whites attacked African Americans . In some cases many black people fought back, notably in Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
The highest number of fatalities occurred in the rural area around Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine, Arkansas
, where five whites and an estimated 100–240 black people were killed; Chicago and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
had 38 and 15 deaths, respectively, and many more injured, with extensive property damage in Chicago
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Bisbee Riot
The BISBEE RIOT, or the BATTLE OF BREWERY GULCH, refers to a conflict during the Red Summer on July 3, 1919, between Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th Cavalry and members of local police forces in Bisbee , Arizona
Arizona
. Following an incident between a military policeman and some of the Buffalo Soldiers, the situation escalated into a street battle in Bisbee's historic Brewery Gulch. At least eight people were seriously injured, and fifty soldiers were arrested, although the consequences of this skirmish were relatively minor compared to others during the summer of 1919. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Riot * 3 Aftermath * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDIn 1919, Bisbee had a population 20,000 and was home to white, black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans. Although a busy place, it was described by author Cameron McWhirter as a "remote... dusty frontier town," ten miles north of the Mexican border
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Longview Race Riot
The LONGVIEW RACE RIOT refers to a series of violent incidents in Longview , Texas
Texas
, between July 10 and July 12, 1919, when whites attacked black areas of town, killed one black man, and burned down several properties, including the houses of a black teacher and a doctor. It was the second of 25 race riots in 1919 in the United States during what became known as Red Summer , a period after World War I known for numerous riots occurring mostly in urban areas. The riot is notable for local and state officials taking actions to impose military authority and quell further violence. After ignoring early rumors of planned unrest, local officials appealed to the governor for forces to quell the violence. In a short time, the Texas National Guard and Texas
Texas
Rangers sent forces to the town, where the Guard organized an occupation and curfew
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Knoxville Riot Of 1919
The KNOXVILLE RIOT OF 1919 was a race riot that took place in Knoxville, Tennessee
Knoxville, Tennessee
, United States, on August 30–31, 1919. The riot began when a lynch mob stormed the county jail in search of Maurice Mays, a mulatto man who had been accused of murdering a white woman. Unable to find Mays, the rioters looted the jail and fought a pitched gun battle with the residents of a predominantly black neighborhood. The Tennessee National Guard
Tennessee National Guard
, which at one point fired two machine guns indiscriminately into this neighborhood, eventually dispersed the rioters. Newspapers placed the death toll at just two, though eyewitness accounts suggest it was much higher. The Riot of 1919 was one of several violent racial incidents that occurred during the so-called Red Summer , when race riots plagued cities across the United States
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Omaha Race Riot Of 1919
The OMAHA RACE RIOT occurred in Omaha , Nebraska
Nebraska
, September 28–29, 1919. The race riot resulted in the brutal lynching of Will Brown, a black worker; the death of two white men; the attempted hanging of Mayor Edward Parsons Smith ; and a public rampage by thousands of whites who set fire to the Douglas County Courthouse in downtown Omaha
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Elaine Race Riot
The ELAINE RACE RIOT, also called the ELAINE MASSACRE, began on September 30–October 1, 1919 at Hoop Spur in the vicinity of Elaine in rural Phillips County, Arkansas
Phillips County, Arkansas
. With an estimated 100 to 237 blacks killed, along with five white men, it is considered the deadliest race riot in the state and one of the deadliest racial conflicts in all of United States history. Due to the widespread white mob attacks, in 2015 the Equal Justice Institute classified the black deaths as lynchings in their report on lynchings in the United States . Located in the Arkansas Delta
Arkansas Delta
, the county had been developed for cotton plantations , worked by African-American
African-American
slaves. In the early 20th century the population was still overwhelmingly black: African Americans outnumbered whites in the area around Elaine by a ten-to-one ratio, and by three-to-one in the county overall
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Mass Racial Violence In The United States
MASS RACIAL VIOLENCE IN THE UNITED STATES, also called race riots , can include such disparate events as: * racially based communal conflict involving African Americans
African Americans
that took place following the American Civil War. * conflict between Americans
Americans
and recent European immigrants in the 19th and 20th centuries. * attacks on Native Americans
Americans
and Americans
Americans
over the land. * frequent fighting among various ethnic groups in major cities, specifically in the Northeast and Midwest United States throughout the late 19th century and early 20th century
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Chicago
CHICAGO (/ʃᵻˈkɑːɡoʊ/ ( listen ) or /ʃᵻˈkɔːɡoʊ/ ), officially the CITY OF CHICAGO, is the third-most populous city in the