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Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
(Thai: เมืองเชียงราย, pronounced [mɯəŋ tɕʰiəŋ raːj]; Lanna: ᩮᨾᩥᩬᨦᨩ᩠ᨿᨦᩁᩣ᩠ᨿ: Mueang Jiang Hai; Lao: Mueang Xieng Hai) is a city in Mueang Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
District, Chiang Rai Province. Chiang Rai
Chiang Rai
is the northernmost large city in Thailand. It was established as a capital city in the reign of King Mangrai, in 1262 CE.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Climate 4 Demographics 5 Government 6 Buddhist temples 7 Tourist attractions 8 Education8.1 Colleges and universities 8.2 International Schools 8.3 High Schools 8.4 Primary Schools9 Hospitals 10 Transportation 11 References 12 External linksHistory[edit]Sadue Mueang, omphalos of the cityThe city was founded by King Mangrai
Mangrai
in 1262[1]:208 and became the capital of the Mangrai
Mangrai
Dynasty
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Hmong People
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob, Hmong pronunciation: [m̥ɔ̃ŋ]) is an indigenous people in Asia. They are also one of the sub-groups of the Miao ethnicity (苗族) in China. Thousands of economic and political refugees have resettled in Western countries in two separate waves. The first wave resettled in the late 1970s, mostly in the United States, after the North Vietnamese
North Vietnamese
and Pathet Lao
Pathet Lao
takeovers of the pro-US governments in South Vietnam
Vietnam
and Laos
Laos
respectively.[9] Since 1949, Miao has been official recognized as one of the 55 official minority groups by the government of the People's Republic of China
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Myanmar
Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1][8] officially the Republic
Republic
of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[9] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[5] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size
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Tripoint
A tripoint, trijunction,[1] triple point or tri-border area is a geographical point at which the boundaries of three countries or subnational entities meet. There are approximately 176 international tripoints.[2] Nearly half are situated in rivers, lakes or seas. When on dry land, the exact tripoints are usually indicated by markers or pillars, and occasionally by larger monuments. Usually, the more neighbours a country has, the more international tripoints that country has. China
China
with 16 tripoints and Russia
Russia
with 11 to 14 lead the list of states by number of tripoints. Within Europe, landlocked Austria
Austria
has nine tripoints, among them two with Switzerland and Liechtenstein
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Golden Triangle (south-east Asia)
The Golden Triangle (Burmese: ရွှေတြိဂံ နယ်မြေ, pronounced [ʃwè tɹḭɡàɴ nɛ̀mjè]; Thai: สามเหลี่ยมทองคำ, RTGS: sam liam thong kham, pronounced [sǎːm.lìa̯m tʰɔ̄ːŋ kʰām]; Lao: ສາມຫຼ່ຽມທອງຄຳ; Chinese: 金三角; Vietnamese: Tam giác Vàng; Khmer: តំបន់ត្រីកោណមាស, pronounced [tɑmbɑn trəy kaon mieh]) refers to the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.[1] The name "Golden Triangle"—coined by the CIA[2]—is commonly used more broadly to refer to an area of approximately 950,000 square kilometres (367,000 sq mi) that overlaps the mountains of three adjacent countries. Along with Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the Golden Crescent, it has been one of the most extensive opium-producing areas of Asia, and of the world, since the 1950s
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Laos
Coordinates: 18°N 105°E / 18°N 105°E / 18; 105Lao People's Democratic Republicສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ (Lao) Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao République démocratique populaire lao (French)FlagEmblemMotto: ສັນຕິພາບ ເອກະລາດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ເອກະພາບ ວັດທະນາຖາວອນ (English: "Peace, independence, democracy, unity and prosperity")Anthem: "Pheng Xat Lao" (English: "Lao National Anthem")Location of  Laos  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vientiane 17°58′N 102°36′E / 17.967°N 102.600°E / 17.967; 102.600Official languages LaoRecognised languages French[1]Spoken languagesLao Hmong Khmu FrenchEthnic groups (2005[2])53.2%
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Köppen Climate Classification
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) collaborated with Köppen on changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7] The Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification
Trewartha climate classification
system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980)
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Burma
Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burmese: [mjəmà]),[nb 1][8] officially the Republic
Republic
of the Union of Myanmar
Myanmar
and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. Myanmar
Myanmar
is bordered by India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to its west, Thailand
Thailand
and Laos
Laos
to its east and China
China
to its north and northeast. To its south, about one third of Myanmar's total perimeter of 5,876 km (3,651 mi) forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km (1,200 mi) along the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Andaman Sea. The country's 2014 census counted the population to be 51 million people.[9] As of 2017, the population is about 54 million.[5] Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres (261,228 square miles) in size
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Monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon
(/mɒnˈsuːn/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation,[1] but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.[2][3] Usually, the term monsoon is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term is sometimes incorrectly used for locally heavy but short-term rains,[4] although these rains meet the dictionary definition of monsoon.[5] The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West
West
African and Asia-Australian monsoons
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Relative Humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity
(RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity
Relative humidity
depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest
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Sunshine Duration
Sunshine
Sunshine
duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine
Sunshine
duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location.[1] Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts
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Hill Tribe (Thailand)
Hill tribe (Thai: ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา,, Thai pronunciation: [tɕʰāːw.dɔ̄ːj, tɕʰāːw.kʰǎw, kʰōn.kʰǎw]) (Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย, Northern Thai pronunciation: [t͡ɕāːw.dɔ̄ːj, xōn.dɔ̄ːj]; "mountain people/folk")[1][2] is a term used in Thailand
Thailand
for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous Northern and Western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between Northern Thailand, Laos
Laos
and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range, the latter a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills, as well as the Tenasserim Hills
Tenasserim Hills
in Western Thailand
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Alluvial Plain
An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms. A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time. As the highlands erode due to weathering and water flow, the sediment from the hills is transported to the lower plain. Various creeks will carry the water further to a river, lake, bay, or ocean. As the sediments are deposited during flood conditions in the floodplain of a creek, the elevation of the floodplain will be raised. As this reduces the channel floodwater capacity, the creek will, over time, seek new, lower paths, forming a meander (a curving sinuous path)
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Karen People
The Karen, Kayin, Kariang or Yang people (S'gaw Karen: ကညီကလုာ် pronounced [kɲɔklɯ], Burmese: ကရင်လူမျိုး, pronounced [kəjɪ̀ɴ lù mjó]; Per Ploan Poe or Ploan in Pwo Karen and Pwa Ka Nyaw or Kanyaw in Sgaw Karen; Thai: กะเหรี่ยง) refer to a number of individual Sino-Tibetan language
Sino-Tibetan language
speaking ethnic groups, many of which do not share a common language or culture. These Karen groups reside primarily in Karen State, southern and southeastern Myanmar
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Tropical Wet And Dry Climate
The tropics are a region of the Earth
Earth
surrounding the Equator. They are delimited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer
Tropic of Cancer
in the Northern Hemisphere at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) N and the Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Capricorn
in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
at 23°26′12.9″ (or 23.43692°) S; these latitudes correspond to the axial tilt of the Earth. The tropics are also referred to as the tropical zone and the torrid zone (see geographical zone)
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Buddharupa
Buddharūpa (literally, "Form of the Awakened One") is the Sanskrit and Pali
Pali
term used in Buddhism
Buddhism
for statues or models of beings who have obtained buddhahood, including the historical Buddha.Contents1 Commonalities 2 Regional variations2.1 Proportions 2.2 Postures, gestures and artefacts3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksCommonalities[edit] Despite cultural and regional differences in the interpretations of texts about the life of Gautama Buddha, there are some general guidelines to the attributes of a Buddharupa:Fingers and toes are elongated proportionately Long, aquiline nose Elongated earlobes Head protuberance Broad shouldersThe elongated earlobes are vestiges of his life as a prince, when he wore extravagant jewelry
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