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Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
(Chinese: 陳水扁; pinyin: Chén Shuǐbiǎn; born October 12, 1950) is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China
President of the Republic of China
(Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008. Chen is the first president from the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) which ended the Kuomintang's (KMT) more than fifty years of continuous rule in Taiwan. He is colloquially referred to as A-Bian (阿扁; Ābiǎn) or A-pi-a (Chinese: 阿扁仔; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: A-píⁿ-à). A lawyer, Chen entered politics in 1980 during the Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Incident as a member of the Tangwai
Tangwai
movement and was elected to the Taipei
Taipei
City Council in 1981
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LL.B.
The Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
(Latin: Legum nrm Baccalaureus; LL.B. or B.L.) is an undergraduate degree in law (or a first professional degree in law, depending on jurisdiction) originating in England
England
and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer.[1] It historically served this purpose in the U.S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
degree, and Canada followed suit. Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL.B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL.B
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Surname
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
City ( Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ: Ko-hiông; Hakka: Kô-hiùng; old names: Takao, Takow, Takau) is a special municipality located in southern-western Taiwan
Taiwan
and facing the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait. Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has a population of approximately 2.77 million people and has been officially ranked as Taiwan's third most populous city since July 2017.[4] It is Taiwan's largest municipality by area at 2,951.85 km2 (1,139.72 sq mi), stretching from Mount Yu to Taiping Island. Since its start in the 17th century, Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
has grown from a small trading village into the political, economic, transportation, manufacturing, refining, shipbuilding, and industrial center of southern Taiwan. The Kaohsiung International Airport
Kaohsiung International Airport
is the second largest airport in Taiwan
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Alma Mater
Alma mater
Alma mater
(Latin: alma "nourishing/kind", mater "mother"; pl. [rarely used] almae matres) is an allegorical Latin
Latin
phrase for a university or college. In English, this is largely a U.S. usage referring to a school or university from which an individual has graduated or to a song or hymn associated with a school.[1] The phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students.[2] Fine arts will often depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, Alma mater
Alma mater
was an honorific title for various Latin
Latin
mother goddesses, especially Ceres or Cybele,[3] and later in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Tainan County
Tainan
Tainan
County was a county of the Republic of China
Republic of China
in southern Taiwan before it merged with the provincial Tainan
Tainan
City to form a new special municipality in 2010. The county capital was Xinying City.Contents1 History 2 Administrative divisions 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Tainan
Tainan
County was established in Taiwan
Taiwan
Province on 7 January 1946 after the handover of Taiwan
Taiwan
from Japan to the Republic of China
Republic of China
in October 1945. It merged with the city of Tainan
Tainan
on 25 December 2010 to form a single special municipality.[1] Administrative divisions[edit] At the time it merged with city of Tainan, Tainan
Tainan
County administered two cities, seven urban townships and 22 rural townships
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Southern Min
Southern Min, or Minnan (simplified Chinese: 闽南语; traditional Chinese: 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
and in certain parts of China
China
including Fujian
Fujian
(especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.[4] The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora, most notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. It is the largest Min Chinese
Min Chinese
branch and the most widely distributed Min Chinese
Min Chinese
subgroup. In common parlance and in the narrower sense, Southern Min
Southern Min
refers to the Quanzhang or Hokkien-Taiwanese variety of Southern Min
Southern Min
originating from Southern Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China
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Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
(/ˈhɒkiɛn, hɒˈkiɛn/;[a] from Chinese: 福建話; pinyin: Fújiànhuà; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hok-kiàn-oē)[b] or Minnan Proper[citation needed] (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min dialect group spoken in the Fujian
Fujian
Province in Southeastern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines
Philippines
and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese. Hokkien originated in southern Fujian, the Min-speaking province. It is the mainstream form of Southern Min. It is closely related to Teochew, though it has limited mutual intelligibility with it, whereas it is more distantly related to other variants such as Hainanese
Hainanese
and Leizhou dialect
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern MinAmoy TaiwaneseCreator Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest TalmageTime periodsince the 1830sParent systemsEgyptian hieroglyphsProto-SinaiticPhoenician alphabetGreek alphabetLatin alphabetPe̍h-ōe-jīChild systemsTLPA Taiwanese Romanization SystemThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Pe̍h-ōe-jī
(pronounced [peʔ˩ ue˩ dzi˨] ( listen), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as Church Romanization) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Tenant Farmer
A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord. Tenant farming is an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and often a measure of operating capital and management; while tenant farmers contribute their labor along with at times varying amounts of capital and management. Depending on the contract, tenants can make payments to the owner either of a fixed portion of the product, in cash or in a combination. The rights the tenant has over the land, the form, and measure of the payment varies across systems (geographically and chronologically). In some systems, the tenant could be evicted at whim (tenancy at will); in others, the landowner and tenant sign a contract for a fixed number of years (tenancy for years or indenture)
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