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Chen Dynasty
The Chen dynasty
Chen dynasty
(simplified Chinese: 陈朝; traditional Chinese: 陳朝; pinyin: Chén Cháo; 557-589), also known as the Southern Chen dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties
Southern Dynasties
in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui dynasty. Chen is the only dynasty named after the ruling house in Chinese history. When the dynasty was founded by Emperor Wu, it was exceedingly weak, possessing only a small portion of the territory once held by its predecessor Liang dynasty—and that portion was devastated by wars that had doomed Liang. However, Emperor Wu's successors Emperor Wen and Emperor Xuan were capable rulers, and the state gradually solidified and strengthened, becoming roughly equal in power to rivals Northern Zhou
Northern Zhou
and Northern Qi. After Northern Zhou
Northern Zhou
destroyed Northern Qi in 577, Chen was cornered
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Trần Dynasty
The Trần dynasty
Trần dynasty
(Nhà Trần, 陳朝, Trần triều[2][3]) ruled in Vietnam
Vietnam
(then known as Đại Việt) from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông
Trần Thái Tông
ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty. The final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Zizhi Tongjian
The Zizhi Tongjian
Zizhi Tongjian
(Chinese: 資治通鑑; literally: "Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance") is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084 , in the form of a chronicle. In 1065 AD, Emperor Yingzong of Song
Emperor Yingzong of Song
ordered the great historian Sima Guang
Sima Guang
(1019–1086 AD) to lead with other scholars such as his chief assistants Liu Shu, Liu Ban and Fan Zuyu,[1] the compilation of a universal history of China. The task took 19 years to be completed,[1] and, in 1084 AD, it was presented to his successor Emperor Shenzong of Song
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Emperor Wen Of Sui
Huang-LaoHuangdi Sijing HuainanziEarly figuresGuan Zhong Zichan Deng Xi Li Kui Wu QiFounding figuresShen Buhai Duke Xiao of Qin Shang Yang Shen Dao Zhang Yi Xun Kuang Han Fei Li Si Qin Shi HuangHan figuresJia Yi Liu An Emperor Wen of Han Emperor Wu of Han Chao Cuo Gongsun Hong Zhang Tang Huan Tan Wang Fu Zhuge LiangLater figuresEmperor Wen of Sui Du You Wang Anshi Li Shanchang Zhang Juzheng Xu Guangqiv t e Emperor Wen of Sui
Emperor Wen of Sui
(隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei
Xianbei
name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana (Chinese: 那羅延; pinyin: Nàluóyán), was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD). He was a hard-working administrator and a micromanager
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Chinese Era Name
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor.Contents1 Function 2 History 3 Era system versus Western dating system 4 See also 5 External linksFunction[edit] Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
was conventionally regarded as the first emperor to declare an era name; however he was only the first to use an era name in every year of his reign. His grandfather and father also employed era names, though not continuously
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Chinese Family Name
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam
Vietnam
and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing (Chinese: 姓; pinyin: xìng) or clan names, and shi (Chinese: 氏; pinyin: shì) or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal, passed from father to children (in adoption, the adoptee usually also takes the same surname). Women do not normally change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous.[1][2] The colloquial expressions laobaixing (老百姓; lit. "old hundred surnames") and bǎixìng (百姓, lit
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Posthumous Name
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia
East Asia
after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life
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Yang Su
Yang Su (楊素) (died August 31, 606[1]), courtesy name Chudao (處道), formally Duke Jingwu of Chu (楚景武公), was a powerful general of the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
whose authority eventually became nearly as supreme as the emperor's. Traditional historians generally believed that he was involved in the suspected murder of Emperor Wen in 604, at the behest of Emperor Wen's son Yang Guang (the later Emperor Yang). His son Yang Xuangan
Yang Xuangan
later rebelled against Emperor Yang in 613 but was defeated and killed, and Yang Su's other sons were also executed.Contents1 During Northern Zhou 2 During Emperor Wen's reign 3 During Emperor Yang's reign 4 Notes and referencesDuring Northern Zhou[edit] It is not known when Yang Su was born. His grandfather Yang Xuan (楊喧) was a mid-level official under the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
or its branch successor state Western Wei
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Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi
(Chinese: 交趾, 交阯; pinyin: Jiāozhǐ; Vietnamese: Giao-chỉ, Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam
Vietnam
from the era of the Hùng kings to the mid
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Chams
The Chams, or Cham people
Cham people
(Cham: Urang Campa,[5] Vietnamese: người Chăm or người Chàm, Khmer: ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia. Their contemporary population, a diaspora, is concentrated between the Kampong Cham Province
Kampong Cham Province
in Cambodia
Cambodia
and Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm, Phan Thiết, Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
and An Giang Province in Southern Vietnam. An additional 4,000 Chams
Chams
live in Bangkok, Thailand, who had migrated during Rama I's reign. Recent immigrants are mainly students and workers, who preferably seek work and education in the southern Islamic Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, and Songkhla provinces
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Chinese Name
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
overseas. Due to China's historical dominance of East Asian culture, many names used in Korea and Vietnam are adaptations of Chinese names, or have historical roots in Chinese, with appropriate adaptation to accommodate linguistic differences. Modern Chinese names consist of a surname known as xing (姓, xìng), which comes first and is usually but not always monosyllabic, followed by a personal name called ming (名, míng), which is nearly always mono- or disyllabic
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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