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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book
Book
and the Red Book
Book
, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book
Book
, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the Gold Book
Book
, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS—also called ω-3 FATTY ACIDS or N-3 FATTY ACIDS —are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The fatty acids have two ends, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (-CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of the chain, thus "omega"; the double bond is at omega minus 3 (not dash 3). One way in which a fatty acid is named is determined by the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end , that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end. However, the standard (IUPAC) chemical nomenclature system starts from the carbonyl end. The three types of omega-3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA) (found in plant oils), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) , and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (both commonly found in marine oils)
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Polyphenol
POLYPHENOLS (noun, pronunciation of the singular /pɒliˈfiːnəl/ or /pɒliˈfɛnəl/ ; also known as POLYHYDROXYPHENOLS) are a structural class of mainly natural , but also synthetic or semisynthetic , organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid (image at right) and ellagitannin (image below). The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols. The name derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and the word phenol which refers to a chemical structure formed by attaching to an aromatic benzenoid (phenyl ) ring, an hydroxyl (-OH) group akin to that found in alcohols (hence the -ol suffix)
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Structure–activity Relationship
The STRUCTURE–ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR) is the relationship between the chemical or 3D structure of a molecule and its biological activity . The analysis of SAR enables the determination of the chemical group responsible for evoking a target biological effect in the organism. This allows modification of the effect or the potency of a bioactive compound (typically a drug) by changing its chemical structure . Medicinal chemists use the techniques of chemical synthesis to insert new chemical groups into the biomedical compound and test the modifications for their biological effects. This method was refined to build mathematical relationships between the chemical structure and the biological activity, known as quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR). A related term is structure affinity relationship (SAFIR)
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Cis–trans Isomerism
CIS–TRANS ISOMERISM, also known as GEOMETRIC ISOMERISM or CONFIGURATIONAL ISOMERISM, is a term used in organic chemistry . The prefixes “cis” and “trans” are from Latin. In the context of chemistry, cis indicates that the functional groups are on the same side of the carbon chain while trans conveys that functional groups are on opposing sides of the carbon chain. Cis-trans isomers are stereoisomers , that is, pairs of molecules which have the same formula but whose functional groups are rotated into a different orientation in three-dimensional space. It is not to be confused with E–Z isomerism , which is an absolute stereochemical description, and only to be used with alkenes. In general, stereoisomers contain double bonds that cannot rotate, or they may contain ring structures, where the rotation of bonds is restricted or prevented. Cis and trans isomers occur both in organic molecules and in inorganic coordination complexes
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Resveratrol
RESVERATROL (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid , a type of natural phenol , and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi . Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes , blueberries , raspberries , mulberries . Although it is used as a dietary supplement , there is no clear evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health
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Cas Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily
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Rapamycin
SIROLIMUS, also known as RAPAMYCIN, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents , prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis . It has immunosuppressant functions in humans and is especially useful in preventing the rejection of kidney transplants. It inhibits activation of T cells
T cells
and B cells
B cells
by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and was isolated for the first time in 1972 by Surendra Nath Sehgal and colleagues from samples of Streptomyces hygroscopicus found on Easter Island . The compound was originally named rapamycin after the native name of the island, Rapa Nui. Sirolimus
Sirolimus
was initially developed as an antifungal agent
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Lexicography
LEXICOGRAPHY is divided into two separate but equally important groups: * PRACTICAL LEXICOGRAPHY is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries . * THEORETICAL LEXICOGRAPHY is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic , syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language , developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'.There is some disagreement on the definition of lexicology , as distinct from lexicography. Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of linguistics pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language. A person devoted to lexicography is called a LEXICOGRAPHER
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Bioactivity
In pharmacology , BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY or PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter . When a drug is a complex chemical mixture, this activity is exerted by the substance's active ingredient or pharmacophore but can be modified by the other constituents. Among the various properties of chemical compounds, pharmacological/biological activity plays a crucial role since it suggests uses of the compounds in the medical applications. However, chemical compounds may show some adverse and toxic effects which may prevent their use in medical practice. Activity is generally dosage -dependent. Further, it is common to have effects ranging from beneficial to adverse for one substance when going from low to high doses. Activity depends critically on fulfillment of the ADME criteria
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Alchemy
ALCHEMY is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
. It aimed to purify, mature, and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia , the transmutation of "base metals " (e.g., lead ) into "noble metals " (particularly gold ); the creation of an elixir of immortality ; the creation of panaceas able to cure any disease; and the development of an alkahest , a universal solvent . The perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and western tradition, the achievement of gnosis . In Europe, the creation of a philosopher\'s stone was variously connected with all of these projects
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World War I
Allied victory * Central Powers ' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union
Soviet Union
* Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. (more..
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Ionic Compound
In chemistry , an IONIC COMPOUND is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding . The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions . These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) in sodium chloride , or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH+ 4) and carbonate (CO2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate . Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure . Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids , and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases. Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions
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Binary Compound
A BINARY COMPOUND is a chemical compound that contains exactly two different elements . Examples of binary ionic compounds include calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium fluoride (NaF), and magnesium oxide (MgO), whilst examples of binary covalent compounds include water (H2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) CONTENTS * 1 Binary acids * 2 Binary covalent compounds * 3 Binary ionic compounds * 4 Examples * 5 References BINARY ACIDSIn the group of binary compounds of hydrogen a binary acid will include a hydrogen atom attached to another atom that will typically be in the 7th group of the periodic Table . These include chlorine , fluorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine . Others such as sulfur , tellurium , polonium , selenium , and arsenic are also included. The naming convention is: “Hydro-” + Nonmetal + “-ic” + “acid” An example is HCl: hydrochloric acid
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Geneva
GENEVA (/dʒɪˈniːvə/ , French : Genève , Arpitan : Genèva , German : Genf , Italian : Ginevra , Romansh : Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland
Switzerland
(after Zürich
Zürich
) and is the most populous city of the Romandy , the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva , it is the capital of the Republic
Republic
and Canton of Geneva . The municipality (ville de Genève) has a population (as of December 2016 ) of 198,979, and the canton (which is essentially the city and its inner-ring suburbs) has 489,524 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland
Switzerland
and France
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Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Baron JöNS JACOB BERZELIUS (Swedish: ; 20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as JACOB BERZELIUS, was a Swedish chemist. Berzelius is considered, along with Robert Boyle , John Dalton , and Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
, to be one of the founders of modern chemistry . Berzelius began his career as a physician but his researches in physical chemistry were of lasting significance in the development of the subject. He is especially noted for his determination of atomic weights; his experiments led to a more complete depiction of the principles of stoichiometry , or the field of chemical combining proportions. In 1803 Berzelius demonstrated the power of an electrochemical cell to decompose chemicals into pairs of electrically opposite constituents
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