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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Ionic Compound
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding. The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH+ 4) and carbonate (CO2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate. Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure. Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases. Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions
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Clinical Chemistry
Clinical chemistry
Clinical chemistry
(also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is an applied form of biochemistry (not to be confused with medicinal chemistry, which involves basic research for drug development). The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical reaction tests for various components of blood and urine. In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. There are now many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities. Most current laboratories are now highly automated to accommodate the high workload typical of a hospital laboratory
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Structure–activity Relationship
The structure–activity relationship (SAR) is the relationship between the chemical or 3D structure of a molecule and its biological activity. The analysis of SAR enables the determination of the chemical group responsible for evoking a target biological effect in the organism. This allows modification of the effect or the potency of a bioactive compound (typically a drug) by changing its chemical structure. Medicinal chemists use the techniques of chemical synthesis to insert new chemical groups into the biomedical compound and test the modifications for their biological effects. This method was refined to build mathematical relationships between the chemical structure and the biological activity, known as quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR)
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Polyphenol
Polyphenols[1][2] (noun, pronunciation of the singular /ˌpɒliˈfiːnoʊl/[3] or /ˌpɒliˈfiːnɒl/;[4][5] also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units. The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological (metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc.) properties of particular members of the class. Examples include tannic acid (image at right) and ellagitannin (image below)
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids,[1] are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).[2][3] The fatty acids have two ends, the carboxylic acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (-CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of the chain, thus "omega". One way in which a fatty acid is named is determined by the location of the first double bond, counted from the tail, that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end
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Cis–trans Isomerism
Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry. The prefixes "cis" and "trans" are from Latin. In the context of chemistry, cis indicates that the functional groups are on the same side of the carbon chain[1] while trans conveys that functional groups are on opposing sides of the carbon chain. Cis-trans isomers are stereoisomers, that is, pairs of molecules which have the same formula but whose functional groups are rotated into a different orientation in three-dimensional space. It is not to be confused with E–Z isomerism, which is an absolute stereochemical description, and only to be used with alkenes. In general, stereoisomers contain double bonds that do not rotate, or they may contain ring structures, where the rotation of bonds is restricted or prevented.[2] Cis and trans isomers occur both in organic molecules and in inorganic coordination complexes
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Resveratrol
Resveratrol
Resveratrol
(3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.[5][6] Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries.[7] Although it is used as a dietary supplement, there is no good evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health.[8][9]Contents1 Health effects1.1 Heart disease 1.2 Cancer 1.3 Metabolism 1.4 Lifespan2 Adverse effects 3 Pharmacology3.1 Pha
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Lexicography
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups:Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. Theoretical lexicography is the scholarly discipline of analyzing and describing the semantic, syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships within the lexicon (vocabulary) of a language, developing theories of dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries, the needs for information by users in specific types of situations, and how users may best access the data incorporated in printed and electronic dictionaries. This is sometimes referred to as 'metalexicography'.There is some disagreement on the definition of lexicology, as distinct from lexicography
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Rapamycin
Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.[4][5][6] It has immunosuppressant functions in humans and is especially useful in preventing the rejection of kidney transplants. It inhibits activation of T cells
T cells
and B cells
B cells
by reducing the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus
Streptomyces hygroscopicus
and was isolated for the first time in 1972 by Surendra Nath Sehgal and colleagues from samples of Streptomyces hygroscopicus
Streptomyces hygroscopicus
found on Easter Island.[7][8] The compound was originally named rapamycin after the native name of the island, Rapa Nui.[5] Sirolimus
Sirolimus
was initially developed as an antifungal agent
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Allotropes Of Sulfur
The element sulfur exists as many allotropes. In terms of large number of allotropes, sulfur is second only to carbon.[1] In addition to the allotropes, each allotrope often exists in polymorphs, delineated by Greek prefixes (α, β, etc.).[2] Furthermore, because elemental sulfur has been an item of commerce for centuries, its various forms are given traditional names. Early workers identified some forms that have later proved to be single or mixtures of allotropes. Some forms have been named for their appearance, e.g. "mother of pearl sulfur", or alternatively named for a chemist who was pre-eminent in identifying them, e.g. "Muthmann's sulfur I" or "Engel's sulfur".[2][3] The most commonly encountered form of sulfur is the orthorhombic polymorph of S 8, which adopts a puckered ring – or "crown" – structure
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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CAS Number
A CAS Registry Number,[1] also referred to as CASRN or CAS Number, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including all substances described from 1957 through the present, plus some substances from the early or mid 1900s), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals, isotopes, alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of unknown, variable composition, or biological origin).[2] The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences,[3] plus additional information about each substance
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American Chemical Society
The American Chemical Society
Chemical Society
(ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States
United States
that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry. Founded in 1876 at New York University, the ACS currently has more than 158,000 members at all degree levels and in all fields of chemistry, chemical engineering, and related fields. It is the world's largest scientific society by membership.[2] The ACS is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization and holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States
United States
Code. Its headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., and it has a large concentration of staff in Columbus, Ohio. The ACS is a leading source of scientific information through its peer-reviewed scientific journals, national conferences, and the Chemical Abstracts Service
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Pure And Applied Chemistry
Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC). It is published monthly by Walter de Gruyter
Walter de Gruyter
and contains recommendations and reports, and lectures from symposia. References[edit]This article about a chemistry journal is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eSee tips for writing articles about academic journals
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