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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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Systematic Name
A SYSTEMATIC NAME is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance , out of a specific population or collection. Systematic names are usually part of a nomenclature . A SEMISYSTEMATIC NAME or SEMITRIVIAL NAME is a name that has at least one systematic part and at least one trivial part. Creating systematic names can be as simple as assigning a prefix or a number to each object (in which case they are a type of numbering scheme ), or as complex as encoding the complete structure of the object in the name. Many systems combine some information about the named object with an extra sequence number to make it into a unique identifier . Systematic names often co-exist with earlier common names assigned before the creation of any systematic naming system. For example, many common chemicals are still referred to by their common or trivial names, even by chemists. CONTENTS * 1 In chemistry * 2 Examples * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References IN CHEMISTRYIn chemistry, a systematic name describes the chemical structure of a chemical substance , thus giving some information about its chemical properties
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Chemical Compound
A CHEMICAL COMPOUND (or just COMPOUND if used in the context of chemistry ) is an entity consisting of two or more atoms , at least two from different chemical elements , which associate via chemical bonds . There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds , ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds , intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds , and certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds . Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): its CAS number . A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O. A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a second chemical compound via a chemical reaction . In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the interacting compounds, and then bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED CHEMISTRY (IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). IUPAC is registered in Zürich , Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park , North Carolina , United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director, currently Lynn Soby. IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry for the advancement of chemistry . Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies , national academies of sciences , or other bodies representing chemists. There are fifty-four National Adhering Organizations and three Associate National Adhering Organizations. IUPAC's Inter-divisional Committee on Nomenclature and Symbols (IUPAC nomenclature ) is the recognized world authority in developing standards for the naming of the chemical elements and compounds . Since its creation, IUPAC has been run by many different committees with different responsibilities. These committees run different projects which include standardizing nomenclature , finding ways to bring chemistry to the world, and publishing works
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Organic Compound
An ORGANIC COMPOUND is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon , although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds. The most basic petrochemicals are considered the building blocks of organic chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Definitions of organic vs inorganic * 2 History * 2.1 Vitalism * 2.2 Modern classification * 3 Classification * 3.1 Natural compounds * 3.2 Synthetic compounds * 3.3 Biotechnology
Biotechnology
* 4 Databases * 5 Structure determination * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DEFINITIONS OF ORGANIC VS INORGANICFor historical reasons discussed below, a few types of carbon-containing compounds, such as carbides , carbonates , simple oxides of carbon (for example, CO and CO2), and cyanides are considered inorganic . The distinction between _organic and inorganic _ carbon compounds, while "useful in organizing the vast subject of chemistry... is somewhat arbitrary". Organic chemistry is the science concerned with all aspects of organic compounds. Organic synthesis is the methodology of their preparation. HISTORYVITALISM Main article: Vitalism For many centuries, Western alchemists believed in vitalism
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Inorganic Compound
A chemical compound is termed INORGANIC if it fulfills one or more of the following criteria: * There is an absence of carbon in its composition * It is of a non-biologic origin * It cannot be found or incorporated into a living organismThere is no clear or universally agreed-upon distinction between organic and inorganic compounds. Organic chemists traditionally and generally refer to any molecule containing carbon as an organic compound and by default this means that inorganic chemistry deals with molecules lacking carbon. As many minerals are of biological origin, biologists may distinguish organic from inorganic compounds in a different way that does not hinge on the presence of a carbon atom. Pools of organic matter, for example, that have been metabolically incorporated into living tissues persist in decomposing tissues , but as molecules become oxidized into the open environment, such as atmospheric CO2, this creates a separate pool of inorganic compounds. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry , an agency widely recognized for defining chemical terms, does not offer definitions of inorganic or organic compounds. Hence, the definition for an inorganic versus an organic compound in a multidisciplinary context spans the division between organic life living (or animate) and inorganic non-living (or inanimate) matter
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Nomenclature Of Organic Chemistry
_NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY_, commonly referred to by chemists as the _BLUE BOOK_, is a collection of recommendations on organic chemical nomenclature published at irregular intervals by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). A full edition was published in 1979, an abridged and updated version of which was published in 1993 as _A GUIDE TO IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS_. Both of these are now out-of-print in their paper versions, but are available free of charge in electronic versions. After the release of a draft version for public comment in 2004 and the publication of several revised sections in the journal _Pure and Applied Chemistry _, a fully revised version was published in print in 2013. SEE ALSO * _ Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry _ (the _Red Book_) * _ Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry _ (the _Green Book_) * _ Compendium of Chemical Terminology _ (the _Gold Book_) * _ Compendium of Analytical Nomenclature _ (the _Orange Book_)REFERENCES * ^ Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S. P., eds. (1979). _Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry_. IUPAC / Pergamon Press . ISBN 0-08022-3699 . * ^ Panico R, Powell WH, Richer JC, eds. (1993). _A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds _. IUPAC / Blackwell Science . ISBN 0-632-03488-2
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Nomenclature Of Inorganic Chemistry
In chemical nomenclature , the IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds , as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). It is published in _Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry _ (which is informally called the Red Book). Ideally, every inorganic compound should have a name from which an unambiguous formula can be determined. There is also an IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 System * 2 Traditional naming * 2.1 Naming simple ionic compounds * 2.1.1 List of common ion names * 2.2 Naming hydrates * 2.3 Naming molecular compounds * 2.3.1 Common exceptions * 3 2005 revision of IUPAC\'s nomenclature for inorganic compounds * 4 Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links SYSTEMThe names "caffeine " and " 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione " both signify the same chemical. The systematic name encodes the structure and composition of the caffeine molecule in some detail, and provides an unambiguous reference to this compound, whereas the name "caffeine" just names it
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Quantities, Units And Symbols In Physical Chemistry
QUANTITIES, UNITS AND SYMBOLS IN PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, also known as the GREEN BOOK, is a compilation of terms and symbols widely used in the field of physical chemistry . It also includes a table of physical constants , tables listing the properties of elementary particles , chemical elements , and nuclides , and information about conversion factors that are commonly used in physical chemistry. The Green Book is published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and is based on published, citeable sources. Information in the Green Book is synthesized from recommendations made by IUPAC, the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), including recommendations listed in the IUPAP Red Book Symbols, Units, Nomenclature and Fundamental Constants in Physics and in the ISO 31 standards. CONTENTS * 1 History, list of editions, and translations to non-English languages * 2 Handy content * 2.1 Quantity calculus * 2.2 Scientific typography * 2.3 Atomic units * 3 See also * 4 External links HISTORY, LIST OF EDITIONS, AND TRANSLATIONS TO NON-ENGLISH LANGUAGESThe third edition of the Green Book (ISBN 978-0-85404-433-7 ) was first published by IUPAC in 2007. A second printing of the third edition was released in 2008; this printing made several minor revisions to the 2007 text
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Symbol
A SYMBOL is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers . Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space. In cartography , an organized collection of symbols forms a legend for a map CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Definitions * 3 Symbols and semiotics * 4 Psychoanalysis, rhetoric and archetypes * 5 Paul Tillich * 6 Role of context in symbolism * 6.1 Historical meaning * 6.2 Context * 7 Symbolic action * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word derives from the Greek _symbolon_ (σύμβολον) meaning token or watchword
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Physical Quantity
A PHYSICAL QUANTITY is a physical property of a phenomenon , body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement . A physical quantity can be expressed as the combination of a magnitude expressed by a number – usually a real number – and a unit ; for example, 6973167492749999999♠1.6749275×10−27 kg (the mass of the neutron ), or 7008299792458000000♠299792458 metres per second (the speed of light ). Physical quantities are measured as n u {textstyle nu} _ where n {textstyle n} is the magnitude and u {textstyle u} is the unit. For example: A boy has measured the length of a room as 3 m. Here 3 is magnitude and m (metre) is the unit. 3 m can also be written as 300 cm. The same physical quantity x {textstyle x} can be represented equivalently in many unit systems, i.e._ x = n 1 u 1 = n 2 u 2 {textstyle x=n_{1}u_{1}=n_{2}u_{2}} . CONTENTS * 1 Symbols, nomenclature * 2 Units and dimensions * 3 Base quantities * 4 General derived quantities * 4.1 Space * 4.2 Densities, flows, gradients, and moments * 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Computer implementations * 7 Sources SYMBOLS, NOMENCLATURE_GENERAL_: Symbols for quantities should be chosen according to the international recommendations from ISO/IEC 80000 , the IUPAP red book and the IUPAC green book
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Physics
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF PURE AND APPLIED PHYSICS (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization whose mission is to assist in the worldwide development of physics , to foster international cooperation in physics, and to help in the application of physics toward solving problems of concern to humanity. It was established in 1922 and the first General Assembly was held in 1923 in Paris. IUPAP carries out this Mission by: sponsoring international meetings; fostering communications and publications; encouraging research and education; fostering the free circulation of scientists; promoting international agreements on the use of symbols, units, nomenclature and standards; and cooperating with other organizations on disciplinary and interdisciplinary problems. IUPAP is a member of the International Council for Science (ICSU). CONTENTS * 1 Committees and governance * 2 Sponsored conferences * 3 Sponsored awards * 4 Sponsored symposiums * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMMITTEES AND GOVERNANCEThe Union is governed by its General Assembly, which meets every three years. The Council is its top executive body, supervising the activities of the nineteen specialized International Commissions and the four Affiliated Commissions – it typically meets once or twice per year. The Union is composed of Members representing identified physics communities. At present 60 Members adhere to IUPAP
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Compendium Of Chemical Terminology
The _COMPENDIUM OF CHEMICAL TERMINOLOGY_ is a book published by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry . Work on the first edition was initiated by Victor Gold , hence its informal name, the _GOLD BOOK_. The first edition was published in 1987 (ISBN 0-63201-765-1 ) and the second edition (ISBN 0-86542-684-8 ), edited by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson, was published in 1997. A slightly expanded version of the _Gold Book_ is also freely searchable online. Translations have also been published in French, Spanish and Polish
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Biochemistry
BIOCHEMISTRY, sometimes called BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms . By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism , biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life . Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has become so successful at explaining living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine to genetics are engaged in biochemical research. Today, the main focus of pure biochemistry is on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells , which in turn relates greatly to the study and understanding of tissues , organs , and whole organisms —that is, all of biology . Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology , the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Depending on the exact definition of the terms used, molecular biology can be thought of as a branch of biochemistry, or biochemistry as a tool with which to investigate and study molecular biology. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules , such as proteins , nucleic acids , carbohydrates and lipids , which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life
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International Union Of Biochemistry And Molecular Biology
The INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology . Formed in 1955 as the INTERNATIONAL UNION OF BIOCHEMISTRY, the union has presently 77 member countries (as of 2008). IUBMB organizes a triennial Congress of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and sponsors more frequent conferences, symposia, educational activities and lectures. It publishes standards on biochemical nomenclature, including enzyme nomenclature, in some cases jointly with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). IUBMB has instituted the Wood Whelan Research fellowship scheme for budding researchers. It is considered as a prestigious award for doctoral students. Candidates are selected based on a competitive project proposal and reference letters. The award scheme provides opportunity to work on a specified project in a different laboratory in a foreign country. It is associated with the journals _ Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education _ (formerly _Biochemical Education_), _ BioEssays _, _BioFactors _, _Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry _, _IUBMB Life_, _ Molecular Aspects of Medicine _ and _Trends in Biochemical Sciences _. Presidents NR. TERM PRESIDENT FROM 18. 2015-... Joan J. Guinovart Spain 17. 2012-2015 G
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Analytical Chemistry
ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate , identify, and quantify matter. In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes . Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods . Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation , extraction , and distillation . Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography , electrophoresis or field flow fractionation . Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction , heat interaction , electric fields or magnetic fields . Often the same instrument can separate, identify and quantify an analyte
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