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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas , which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms , i.e. elements , and molecules , i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds. Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds . There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds , in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions : cations and anions ; hydrogen bonds ; and Van der Waals force bonds. See glossary of chemistry . In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology
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Isomer
An ISOMER (/ˈaɪsəmər/ ; from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos = "equal", méros = "part") is a molecule with the same molecular formula as another molecule, but with a different chemical structure . That is, isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have the same functional groups . There are two main forms of ISOMERISM (/ˈaɪsəmərɪzm/ or /aɪˈsɒmərɪzm/ ): structural isomerism (or constitutional isomerism) and stereoisomerism (or spatial isomerism)
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Ionic Bond
IONIC BONDING is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions , and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds . The ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions , which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations , which are positively charged). This transfer of electrons is known as ELECTROVALENCE in contrast to covalence . In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42−. In simpler words, an ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal in order to obtain a full valence shell for both atoms
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Covalent Bond
A COVALENT BOND, also called a MOLECULAR BOND, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms . These electron pairs are known as SHARED PAIRS or BONDING PAIRS, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons , is known as covalent bonding. For many molecules , the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration. Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interactions, including σ-bonding , π-bonding , metal-to-metal bonding , agostic interactions , bent bonds , and three-center two-electron bonds . The term covalent bond dates from 1939. The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence ", such as is discussed in valence bond theory
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Connectivity (graph Theory)
In mathematics and computer science , CONNECTIVITY is one of the basic concepts of graph theory : it asks for the minimum number of elements (nodes or edges) that need to be removed to disconnect the remaining nodes from each other. It is closely related to the theory of network flow problems. The connectivity of a graph is an important measure of its resilience as a network. CONTENTS * 1 Connected graph * 2 Definitions of components, cuts and connectivity * 2.1 Super- and hyper-connectivity * 3 Menger\'s theorem * 4 Computational aspects * 4.1 Number of connected graphs * 5 Examples * 6 Bounds on connectivity * 7 Other properties * 8 See also * 9 References CONNECTED GRAPH With vertex 0 this graph is disconnected, the rest of the graph is connected. A graph is CONNECTED when there is a path between every pair of vertices. In a connected graph, there are no UNREACHABLE vertices. A graph that is not connected is DISCONNECTED
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C6H12O6
The molecular formula C6H12O6 (GLUCOSE) (molar mass : 180.16 g/mol) may refer to: * Aldohexose : * Allose * Altrose * Galactose * Glucose * Gulose * Idose * Mannose * Talose * Ketohexose : * Fructose * Psicose * Sorbose * Tagatose * Inositols This set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular formula . If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intende
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Ionic Compound
In chemistry , an IONIC COMPOUND is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding . The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions . These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) in sodium chloride , or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH+ 4) and carbonate (CO2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate . Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure . Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids , and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases. Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions
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Chemical Symbol
In relation to the chemical elements , a SYMBOL is a code for a chemical element. Many functional groups has their own chemical symbol, e.g. Ph for the phenyl group , and Me for the methyl group . Chemical symbols for elements normally consist of one or two letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet, but can contain three when the element has a systematic temporary name (as of March 2017, no discovered elements have such a name), and are written with the first letter capitalized. Earlier chemical element symbols stem from classical Latin
Latin
and Greek vocabulary. For some elements, this is because the material was known in ancient times, while for others, the name is a more recent invention. For example, "He" is the symbol for helium (New Latin
Latin
name, not known in ancient Roman times), "Pb" for lead (plumbum in Latin), and "Hg" for mercury (hydrargyrum in Greek)
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Polyatomic Ion
A POLYATOMIC ION, also known as a MOLECULAR ION, is a charged chemical species (ion ) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit. The prefix poly- means "many," in Greek, but even ions of two atoms are commonly referred to as polyatomic. In older literature, a polyatomic ion is also referred to as a RADICAL , and less commonly, as a RADICAL GROUP. In contemporary usage, the term radical refers to free radicals that are (not necessarily charged) species with an unpaired electron. An example of a polyatomic ion is the hydroxide ion; consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, hydroxide has a charge of −1 . Its chemical formula is O H −. An ammonium ion is made up of one nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms: it has a charge of +1, and its chemical formula is N H + 4. Polyatomic ions are often useful in the context of acid-base chemistry or in the formation of salts
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Binary Compound
A BINARY COMPOUND is a chemical compound that contains exactly two different elements . Examples of binary ionic compounds include calcium chloride (CaCl2), sodium fluoride (NaF), and magnesium oxide (MgO), whilst examples of binary covalent compounds include water (H2O), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) CONTENTS * 1 Binary acids * 2 Binary covalent compounds * 3 Binary ionic compounds * 4 Examples * 5 References BINARY ACIDSIn the group of binary compounds of hydrogen a binary acid will include a hydrogen atom attached to another atom that will typically be in the 7th group of the periodic Table . These include chlorine , fluorine , bromine , iodine , and astatine . Others such as sulfur , tellurium , polonium , selenium , and arsenic are also included. The naming convention is: “Hydro-” + Nonmetal + “-ic” + “acid” An example is HCl: hydrochloric acid
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Chemical Bond
A CHEMICAL BOND is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds . The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds . The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic , covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as Dipole-dipole interaction , the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding . Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force , the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Double Bond
A DOUBLE BOND in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two. The most common double bond, that is between two carbon atoms, can be found in alkenes . Many types of double bonds exist between two different elements. For example, in a carbonyl group with a carbon atom and an oxygen atom. Other common double bonds are found in azo compounds (N=N), imines (C=N) and sulfoxides (S=O). In skeletal formula the double bond is drawn as two parallel lines (=) between the two connected atoms; typographically, the equals sign is used for this. Double bonds were first introduced in chemical notation by Russian chemist Alexander Butlerov . Double bonds involving carbon are stronger than single bonds and are also shorter. The bond order is two. Double bonds are also electron-rich, which makes them reactive
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Atom
An ATOM is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element . Every solid , liquid , gas , and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are very small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale ). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects . Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons . Protons and neutrons are called nucleons . More than 99.94% of an atom's mass is in the nucleus
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Hydrogen
HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe
Universe
, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons . The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch . At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Quaternary Compound
In chemistry , a QUATERNARY COMPOUND is a cation consisting of a central positively charged atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl ) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms. The best known quaternary compounds are quaternary ammonium salts , having a nitrogen atom at the centre. For example, in the following reaction, the nitrogen atom is said to be QUATERNIZED as it has gone from 3 to 4 substituents: R 3 N + R C l R 4 N + C l {displaystyle mathrm {R_{3}N+RCllongrightarrow R_{4}N^{+} Cl^{-}} } Other examples include substituted phosphonium salts (R4P +), substituted arsonium salts (R4As +) like arsenobetaine , as well as some arsenic containing superconductors . Substituted stibonium (R4Sb +) and bismuthonium salts (R4Bi +) have also been described. SEE ALSO * Binary compounds * Ternary compounds * Onium compounds REFERENCES * ^ IUPAC , Compendium of Chemical Terminology , 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997)
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