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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Triple Bond
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond. The most common triple bond, that between two carbon atoms, can be found in alkynes. Other functional groups containing a triple bond are cyanides and isocyanides. Some diatomic molecules, such as dinitrogen and carbon monoxide, are also triple bonded. In skeletal formula the triple bond is drawn as three parallel lines (≡) between the two connected atoms.[1][2][3] Triple bonds are stronger and shorter than the equivalent single bonds or double bonds, with a bond order of three.acetylene, H−C≡C−H cyanogen, N≡C−C≡N carbon monoxide, C≡OChemical compounds with triple bondBonding[edit] The types of bonding can be explained in terms of orbital hybridization. In the case of acetylene each carbon atom has two sp orbitals and two p-orbitals
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Chemical Bond
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds. The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions as in ionic bonds; or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds. The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic, covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as dipole–dipole interactions, the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
and hydrogen bonding. Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force, the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Binary Compound
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements. Some binary phases compounds are molecular, e.g. carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). More typically binary phase refers to extended solids. Famous examples are the two polymorphs of zinc sulfide.[1] Phases with higher degrees of complexity feature more elements, e.g. three elements in ternary phases, four elements in quaternary phases, References[edit]^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry
Chemistry
of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. This chemistry-related article is a stub
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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C6H12O6
The molecular formula C6H12O6 (molar mass: 180.16 g/mol) may refer to:AldohexosesAllose Altrose Galactose Glucose L-Glucose Gulose Idose Mannose TaloseKetohexosesFructose Psicose Sorbose TagatoseInositolsallo-Inositol cis-Inositol 1D-chiro-Inositol 1L-chiro-Inositol epi-Inositol muco-Inositol neo-Inositol scyllo-InositolThis set index page lists chemical structure articles associated with the same molecular formula. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Quaternary Compound
In chemistry, a quaternary compound is a cation consisting of a central positively charged atom with four substituents, especially organic (alkyl and aryl) groups, discounting hydrogen atoms.[1] The best known quaternary compounds are quaternary ammonium salts, having a nitrogen atom at the centre.[2] For example, in the following reaction, the nitrogen atom is said to be quaternized as it has gone from 3 to 4 substituents: R 3 N + R C l ⟶ R 4 N +   C l − displaystyle mathrm R_ 3 N+RCllongrightarrow R_ 4 N^ + Cl^ - Other examples include substituted phosphonium salts (R4P+), substituted arsonium salts (R4As+) like arsenobetaine, as well as some arsenic containing superconductors.[3] Substituted stibonium
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Analytical Chemistry
Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.[1] In practice separation, identification or quantification may constitute the entire analysis or be combined with another method. Separation isolates analytes. Qualitative analysis identifies analytes, while quantitative analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration. Analytical chemistry
Analytical chemistry
consists of classical, wet chemical methods and modern, instrumental methods.[2] Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Substituent
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule. The terms substituent, side chain, group, branch, or pendant group are used almost interchangeably to describe branches from a parent structure,[1] though certain distinctions are made in the context of polymer chemistry.[2] In polymers, side chains extend from a backbone structure. In proteins, side chains are attached to the alpha carbon atoms of the amino acid backbone. The suffix -yl is used when naming organic compounds that contain a single bond replacing one hydrogen; -ylidene and -ylidyne are used with double bonds and triple bonds, respectively. In addition, when naming hydrocarbons that contain a substituent, positional numbers are used to indicate which carbon atom the substituent attaches to when such information is needed to distinguish between isomers
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Ionic Bond
Ionic bonding
Ionic bonding
is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds. The ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions, which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations, which are positively charged). This transfer of electrons is known as electrovalence in contrast to covalence. In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42−
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Covalent Bond
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
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Ionic Compound
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding. The compound is neutral overall, but consists of positively charged ions called cations and negatively charged ions called anions. These can be simple ions such as the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) in sodium chloride, or polyatomic species such as the ammonium (NH+ 4) and carbonate (CO2− 3) ions in ammonium carbonate. Individual ions within an ionic compound usually have multiple nearest neighbours, so are not considered to be part of molecules, but instead part of a continuous three-dimensional network, usually in a crystalline structure. Ionic compounds containing hydrogen ions (H+) are classified as acids, and those containing basic ions hydroxide (OH−) or oxide (O2−) are classified as bases. Ionic compounds without these ions are also known as salts and can be formed by acid–base reactions
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Ternary Compound
In inorganic chemistry, a ternary compound is a compound containing three different elements. An example is sodium phosphate, Na3PO4. The sodium ion has a charge of 1+ and the phosphate ion has a charge of 3-. Therefore, three sodium ions are needed to balance the charge of one phosphate ion. Another example of a ternary compound is calcium carbonate (CaCO3). In naming and writing the formulae for ternary compounds, rules are similar to binary compounds. According to Rustum Roy and Olaf Müller,[1] "the chemistry of the entire mineral world informs us that chemical complexity can easily be accommodated within structural simplicity." The example of zircon is cited, where various metal atoms are replaced in the same crystal structure. "The structural entity ..
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Connectivity (graph Theory)
In mathematics and computer science, connectivity is one of the basic concepts of graph theory: it asks for the minimum number of elements (nodes or edges) that need to be removed to disconnect the remaining nodes from each other.[1] It is closely related to the theory of network flow problems. The connectivity of a graph is an important measure of its resilience as a network.Contents1 Connected graph 2 Definitions of components, cuts and connectivity2.1 Super- and hyper-connectivity3 Menger's theorem 4 Computational aspects4.1 Number of connected graphs5 Examples 6 Bounds on connectivity 7 Other properties 8 See also 9 ReferencesConnected graph[edit]With vertex 0, this graph is disconnected. The rest of the graph is connected.A graph is connected when there is a path between every pair of vertices. In a connected graph, there are no unreachable vertices. A graph that is not connected is disconnected
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Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule. It includes the general shape of the molecule as well as bond lengths, bond angles, torsional angles and any other geometrical parameters that determine the position of each atom. Molecular geometry
Molecular geometry
influences several properties of a substance including its reactivity, polarity, phase of matter, color, magnetism and biological activity.[1][2][3] The angles between bonds that an atom forms depend only weakly on the rest of molecule, i.e
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