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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound , using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and _plus_ (+) and _minus_ (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called _empirical formulas _, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical _proportions_ of atoms of each type
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Structural Formula
The STRUCTURAL FORMULA of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged. The chemical bonding within the molecule is also shown, either explicitly or implicitly. Unlike CHEMICAL formulas , which have a limited number of symbols and are capable of only limited descriptive power, STRUCTURAL formulas provide a complete geometric representation of the molecular structure. For example, many chemical compounds exist in different isomeric forms, which have different enantiomeric structures but the same chemical formula . A structural formula is able to indicate arrangements of atoms in three dimensional space in a way that a chemical formula may not be able to do. Several systematic chemical NAMING formats, as in chemical databases , are used that are equivalent to, and as powerful as, geometric structures. These chemical nomenclature systems include SMILES , InChI and CML
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Aluminium Sulfate
ALUMINIUM SULFATE is a chemical compound with the formula Al 2(SO4) 3. It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent (promoting particle collision by neutralizing charge) in the purification of drinking water and waste water treatment plants, and also in paper manufacturing. Aluminium
Aluminium
sulfate is sometimes referred to as a type of alum . Alums are double sulfate salts, with the formula AM(SO 4) 2·12H 2O, where A is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium and M is a trivalent metal ion such as aluminium . The anhydrous form occurs naturally as a rare mineral millosevichite , found e.g. in volcanic environments and on burning coal-mining waste dumps. Aluminium
Aluminium
sulfate is rarely, if ever, encountered as the anhydrous salt. It forms a number of different hydrates , of which the hexadecahydrate Al2(SO4)3•16H2O and octadecahydrate Al2(SO4)3•18H2O are the most common
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Water
WATER is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams , lakes , and oceans , and the fluids of most living organisms . Its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that its molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms , that are connected by covalent bonds . Water strictly refers to the liquid state of that substance, that prevails at standard ambient temperature and pressure ; but it often refers also to its solid state (ice ) or its gaseous state (steam or water vapor ). It also occurs in nature as snow , glaciers , ice packs and icebergs , clouds , fog , dew , aquifers , and atmospheric humidity . Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known forms of life
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Butane
BUTANE (/ˈbjuːteɪn/ ) is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms . Butane
Butane
is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers , N-BUTANE or ISOBUTANE (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers . In the IUPAC nomenclature, however, "butane" refers only to the n-butane isomer (which is the isomer with the unbranched structure). Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases that quickly vaporize at room temperature. The name butane comes from the roots but- (from butyric acid , named after the Greek word for butter) and -ane . It was discovered by the chemist Edward Frankland in 1849
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Atom
Atom, from the Greek word atomos, which means indivisible, was first conceived around 2,400 years ago by a Greek man named Democritus . An ATOM is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element . Every solid , liquid , gas , and plasma is composed of neutral or ionized atoms. Atoms are very small; typical sizes are around 100 picometers (a ten-billionth of a meter, in the short scale ). Atoms are small enough that attempting to predict their behavior using classical physics – as if they were billiard balls, for example – gives noticeably incorrect predictions due to quantum effects . Through the development of physics, atomic models have incorporated quantum principles to better explain and predict the behavior. Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus. The nucleus is made of one or more protons and typically a similar number of neutrons . Protons and neutrons are called nucleons
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Chemical Compound
A CHEMICAL COMPOUND (or just COMPOUND if used in the context of chemistry ) is an entity consisting of two or more atoms , at least two from different chemical elements , which associate via chemical bonds . There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds , ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds , intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds , and certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds . Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS): its CAS number . A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Chemical Element
A CHEMICAL ELEMENT or ELEMENT is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number , or _Z_). There are 118 elements that have been identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth
Earth
with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements . There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radioactive isotopes , which decay over time into other elements. Iron
Iron
is the most abundant element (by mass ) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe. However astronomical observations suggest that ordinary observable matter makes up only about 15% of the matter in the universe: the remainder is dark matter ; the composition of this is unknown, but it is not composed of chemical elements
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Chemical Substance
A CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE also known as a PURE SUBSTANCE is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e., without breaking chemical bonds. Chemical substances can be chemical elements , chemical compounds , ions or alloys . Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures . A common example of a chemical substance is pure water ; it has the same properties and the same ratio of hydrogen to oxygen whether it is isolated from a river or made in a laboratory . Other chemical substances commonly encountered in pure form are diamond (carbon), gold , table salt (sodium chloride ) and refined sugar (sucrose ). However, in practice, no substance is entirely pure, and chemical purity is specified according to the intended use of the chemical
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Empirical Formula
In chemistry , the EMPIRICAL FORMULA of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound. A simple example of this concept is that the empirical formula of sulfur monoxide , or SO, would simply be SO, as is the empirical formula of disulfur dioxide , S2O2. This means that sulfur monoxide and disulfur dioxide , both compounds of sulfur and oxygen , will have the same empirical formula. However, their chemical formulas , which express the number of atoms in each molecule of a chemical compound, will not be the same. An empirical formula makes no mention of the arrangement or number of atoms. It is standard for many ionic compounds , like calcium chloride (CaCl2), and for macromolecules , such as silicon dioxide (SiO2). The molecular formula , on the other hand, shows the number of each type of atom in a molecule. The structural formula shows the arrangement of the molecule
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Condensed Formula
The STRUCTURAL FORMULA of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged. The chemical bonding within the molecule is also shown, either explicitly or implicitly. Unlike CHEMICAL formulas , which have a limited number of symbols and are capable of only limited descriptive power, STRUCTURAL formulas provide a complete geometric representation of the molecular structure. For example, many chemical compounds exist in different isomeric forms, which have different enantiomeric structures but the same chemical formula . A structural formula is able to indicate arrangements of atoms in three dimensional space in a way that a chemical formula may not be able to do. Several systematic chemical NAMING formats, as in chemical databases , are used that are equivalent to, and as powerful as, geometric structures. These chemical nomenclature systems include SMILES , InChI and CML
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Chemical Bond
A CHEMICAL BOND is a lasting attraction between atoms that enables the formation of chemical compounds . The bond may result from the electrostatic force of attraction between atoms with opposite charges, or through the sharing of electrons as in the covalent bonds . The strength of chemical bonds varies considerably; there are "strong bonds" or "primary bond" such as metallic , covalent or ionic bonds and "weak bonds" or "secondary bond" such as Dipole-dipole interaction , the London dispersion force and hydrogen bonding . Since opposite charges attract via a simple electromagnetic force , the negatively charged electrons that are orbiting the nucleus and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other. An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond
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Covalent Bond
A COVALENT BOND, also called a MOLECULAR BOND, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms . These electron pairs are known as SHARED PAIRS or BONDING PAIRS, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons , is known as covalent bonding. For many molecules , the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration. Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interactions, including σ-bonding , π-bonding , metal-to-metal bonding , agostic interactions , bent bonds , and three-center two-electron bonds . The term _covalent bond_ dates from 1939. The prefix _co-_ means _jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree,_ etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence ", such as is discussed in valence bond theory
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Ionic Bond
IONIC BONDING is a type of chemical bond that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions , and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds . The ions are atoms that have gained one or more electrons (known as anions , which are negatively charged) and atoms that have lost one or more electrons (known as cations , which are positively charged). This transfer of electrons is known as ELECTROVALENCE in contrast to covalence . In the simplest case, the cation is a metal atom and the anion is a nonmetal atom, but these ions can be of a more complex nature, e.g. molecular ions like NH4+ or SO42−. In simpler words, an ionic bond is the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal in order to obtain a full valence shell for both atoms
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