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Chelation
Chelation
Chelation
(US: /kiːˈleɪʃən/ , UK: /tʃɪˈleɪʃən/) is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions
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Ions
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Porphyrin
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ POUR-fer-in) are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (=CH−). The parent porphyrin is porphine, a rare chemical compound of exclusively theoretical interest. Substituted porphines are called porphyrins. With a total of 26 π-electrons, of which 18 π-electrons form a planar, continuous cycle, the porphyrin ring structure is often described as aromatic.[1][2] One result of the large conjugated system is that porphyrins typically absorb strongly in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. they are deeply colored. The name "porphyrin" derives from the Greek word πορφύρα (porphyra), meaning purple.[3] Metal complexes derived from porphyrins occur naturally
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Entropy (order And Disorder)
In thermodynamics, entropy is commonly associated with the amount of order, disorder, or chaos in a thermodynamic system
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Biomolecules
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.[1] Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A more general name for this class of material is biological materials. Biomolecules are usually endogenous but may also be exogenous. For example, pharmaceutical drugs may be natural products or semisynthetic (biopharmaceuticals) or they may be totally synthetic. Biology
Biology
and its subsets of biochemistry and molecular biology study biomolecules and their reactions. Most biomolecules are organic compounds, and just four elements—oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen—make up 96% of the human body's mass
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Cation
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Polysaccharide
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks
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Glutamic Acid
Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
(symbol Glu or E[4]) is an α-amino acid with formula C 5H 9O 4N. Its molecular structure could be idealized as HOOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COOH, with two carboxyl groups -COOH and one amino group -NH 2. However, in the solid state and mildly acid water solutions, the molecule assumes an electrically neutral zwitterion structure −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COOH. The acid can lose one proton from its second carboxyl group to form the conjugate base, the singly-negative anion glutamate −OOC-CH(NH+ 3)-(CH 2)2-COO−. This form of the compound is prevalent in neutral solutions. The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation.[5] This anion is also responsible for the savory flavor (umami) of certain foods, and used in glutamate flavorings such as MSG. In highly alkaline solutions the doubly negative anion −OOC-CH(NH 2)-(CH 2)2-COO− prevails
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Histidine
Histidine
Histidine
(symbol His or H;[2] encoded by the codons CAU and CAC) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO− form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also.[3] Histidine
Histidine
was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel
Albrecht Kossel
and Sven Hedin in 1896.[4] It is also a precursor to histamine, a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses
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Malate
Malic acid
Malic acid
is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Malic acid
Malic acid
has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.Contents1 Biochemistry 2 In food 3 Production and main reactions 4 Interactive pathway map 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksBiochemistry[edit] L- Malic acid
Malic acid
is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically.L-Malic acidD-Malic acid Malate
Malate
plays an important role in biochemistry. In the C4 carbon fixation process, malate is a source of CO2 in the Calvin cycle
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Phytochelatin
Phytochelatins are oligomers of glutathione, produced by the enzyme phytochelatin synthase. They are found in plants, fungi, nematodes and all groups of algae including cyanobacteria
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Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
(American) or haemoglobin (British) (/ˈhiːməˌɡloʊbɪn, ˈhɛ-, -moʊ-/[1][2][3]); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates[4] (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae[5]) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates. Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
in the blood carries oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues)
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Kelvin
The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction ​1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F).[1] In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree
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Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
(also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.[1] Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros ("green") and φύλλον, phyllon ("leaf").[2] Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophylls absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as the red portion.[3] Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues
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Pseudomonas
P. aeruginosa groupP. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. stramineaP. chlororaphis groupP. asplenii P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. corrugata P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolensP. fluorescens groupP. antarctica P. azotoformans 'P. blatchfordae' P. brassicacearum P. brenneri P. cedrina P. corrugata P. fluorescens P. gessardii P. libanensis P. mandelii P. marginalis P. mediterranea P. meridiana P. migulae P. mucidolens P. orientalis P. panacis P. protegens P. proteolytica P. rhodesiae P. synxantha P. thivervalensis P. tolaasii P. veroniiP. pertucinogena groupP. denitrificans P. pertucinogenaP. putida groupP. cremoricolorata P. entomophila P. fulva P. monteilii P. mosselii P. oryzihabitans P. parafulva P. plecoglossicida P. putidaP. stutzeri groupP. balearica P. luteola P. stutzeriP
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