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Charsianon
Charsianon
Charsianon
(Greek: Χαρσιανόν) was the name of a Byzantine fortress and the corresponding theme (a military-civilian province) in the region of Cappadocia
Cappadocia
in central Anatolia
Anatolia
(modern Turkey). It center was first in Charsianon
Charsianon
(its ruins are found in Muşalikalesi village of Akdağmadeni
Akdağmadeni
district in Yozgat Province), later in Caesarea. History[edit] The fortress of Charsianon
Charsianon
(Greek: Χαρσιανόν κάστρον, Charsianon
Charsianon
kastron; Arabic: Qal'e-i Ḥarsanōs) is first mentioned in 638, during the first wave of the Muslim conquests, and was allegedly named after a general of Justinian I
Justinian I
named Charsios
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Seljuk Turks
Damascus: 1104 – Baqtash was dethroned by Toghtekin Great Seljuq: 1194 – Toghrul III was killed in battle with Tekish Rum: 1307 – Mesud II
Mesud II
diedThe Seljuq dynasty or Seljuqs[1][2][3](/ˈsɛldʒʊk/ SEL-juuk; Persian: آل سلجوق[4]‎ Al-e Saljuq) was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society
Persianate society
and contributed to the Turko-Persian tradition[5][6] in the medieval West and Central Asia
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Arabs
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Dux
Dux
Dux
(/dʌks, dʊks/; plural: ducēs) is Latin
Latin
for "leader" (from the noun dux, ducis, "leader, general") and later for duke and its variant forms (doge, duce, etc.). During the Roman Republic, dux could refer to anyone who commanded troops, including foreign leaders, but was not a formal military rank. In writing his commentaries on the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
uses the term only for Celtic generals, with one exception for a Roman commander who held no official rank.[1]Contents1 Roman Empire1.1 Original usage 1.2 Change in usage 1.3 The office under the Dominate2 Later developments 3 Post-Roman uses3.1 Education4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksRoman Empire[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Armenians
Armenians
Armenians
(Armenian: հայեր, hayer [hɑˈjɛɾ]) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands. Armenians
Armenians
constitute the main population of Armenia
Armenia
and the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around 5 million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia, Iran, Germany, Ukraine, Lebanon, Brazil and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran
Iran
and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora
Armenian diaspora
was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide.[25] Most Armenians
Armenians
adhere to the Armenian Apostolic Church, a non-Chalcedonian church, which is also the world's oldest national church
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Alexander Kazhdan
Alexander Petrovich Kazhdan (Russian: Алекса́ндр Петро́вич Кажда́н; 3 September 1922 – 29 May 1997) was a Soviet-American Byzantinist.Contents1 Biography1.1 Soviet 1.2 United States2 Notes 3 Further readingBiography[edit] Soviet[edit] Born in Moscow, Kazhdan was educated at the Pedagogical Institute of Ufa
Ufa
and the University of Moscow, where he studied with the historian of medieval England, Evgenii Kosminskii.[1] A post-war Soviet initiative to revive Russian-language
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Strategos
Strategos
Strategos
or Strategus, plural strategoi, (Greek: στρατηγός, pl. στρατηγοί; Doric Greek: στραταγός, stratagos; meaning "army leader") is used in Greek to mean military general. In the Hellenistic world
Hellenistic world
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
the term was also used to describe a military governor. In the modern Hellenic Army
Hellenic Army
it is the highest officer rank.Contents1 Etymology 2 Classical Greece 3 Hellenistic and Roman use 4 Byzantine use 5 In Messina 6 Modern use 7 Fictional uses 8 References 9 Sources 10 External linksEtymology[edit] Strategos
Strategos
is a compound of two Greek words: stratos and agos. Stratos (στρατός) means army, literally "that which is spread out", coming from the proto-Indo-European root *stere- "to spread"
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Nicolas Oikonomides
Nikolaos or Nikos Oikonomides (Greek: Νικόλαος Οικονομίδης, 14 February 1934 – 31 May 2000) was a Greek-Canadian Byzantinist, and one of the leading experts in the field of Byzantine administration. Biography[edit] Oikonomides was born in Athens. He studied in the University of Athens
Athens
from 1951 to 1956, under the tutelage of Byzantinist
Byzantinist
Dionysios Zakythinos. After obtaining his degree, in 1958 he went to Paris
Paris
to pursue doctoral studies under Paul Lemerle. His studies in Paris
Paris
also introduced him to sigillography, and led to the discovery of the so-called Escorial Taktikon or Taktikon Oikonomides
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Kleisoura (Byzantine District)
In the Byzantine Empire, a kleisoura (Greek: κλεισούρα, "enclosure, defile") was a term traditionally applied to a fortified mountain pass and the military district protecting it.[1] By the late 7th century, it came to be applied to more extensive frontier districts, distinct from the larger themata, chiefly along the Empire's eastern border with the Caliphate
Caliphate
along the line of the Taurus-Anti-Taurus mountains (in the West, only Strymon was in its early days termed a kleisoura).[1] A kleisoura or kleisourarchia was an autonomous command, under a kleisourarches (Greek: κλεισουράρχης). Eventually, most kleisourai were raised to full themata, and the term fell out of use after the 10th century (in late Byzantine times, droungos had a similar meaning)
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Byzantine–Arab Wars
Zayd ibn Harithah † Ja'far ibn Abī Tālib † Khalid ibn al-Walid Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl 'Abd Allah ibn Rawahah † Abu Bakr Umar Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Sharhabeel ibn Hasana 'Amr ibn al-'As Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan Abdullah ibn Saad Muawiyah I Yazid I Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Marwan Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik Abdallah al-Battal Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham Harun al-Rashid Abd al-Malik ibn Salih Al-Ma'mun Al-Mu'tasim Asad ibn al-Furat (DOW) Abbas ibn al-Fadl Khafaga ibn Sufyan Ibrahim II of Ifriqiya Leo of Tripoli †
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Danishmendids
The Danishmend or Danishmendid dynasty (Persian: سلسله دانشمند‎, Turkish: Danişmentliler) was a Turkish dynasty that ruled in north-central and eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries.[1] The dynasty centered originally around Sivas, Tokat, and Niksar in central-northeastern Anatolia, they extended as far west as Ankara and Kastamonu for a time, and as far south as Malatya, which they captured in 1103. In early 12th century, Danishmends were rivals of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, which controlled much of the territory surrounding the Danishmend lands, and they fought extensively against the Crusaders. The dynasty was established by Danishmend Gazi (daneshmand meaning in Persian) for whom historical information is rather scarce and was generally written long after his death
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