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Charles III Of Spain
Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain
King of Spain
and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples
Naples
as Charles VII and Sicily
Sicily
as Charles V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma
Duke of Parma
and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese
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Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; German: Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria
Archduke of Austria
(as Charles III) in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II, in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa, the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna, Governess of the Austrian Netherlands. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713. The Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of his elder brother and predecessor, Joseph I, in the succession, ignoring the decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I
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Augustus III Of Poland
Augustus III (Polish: August III Sas, Lithuanian: Augustas III; 17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763) was King of Poland
King of Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
from 1734 until 1763, as well as Elector of Saxony in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1733 until 1763 where he was known as Frederick Augustus II (German: Friedrich August II). The only legitimate son of Augustus II of Poland, he followed his father’s example by joining the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in 1712
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Philip V Of Spain
Philip V (Spanish: Felipe V, French: Philippe, Italian: Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he reassumed the throne upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France
France
as a grandson of King Louis XIV. His father, Louis, the Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain
Spain
when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Louis, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle (Philip's granduncle) King Charles II of Spain
Spain
named Philip as his heir in his will
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Elisabeth Farnese
Elisabeth Farnese
Elisabeth Farnese
(Italian: Elisabetta Farnese, Spanish: Isabel de Farnesio; 25 October 1692 – 11 July 1766) was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent.[1]Contents1 Parma 2 Marriage 3 Queen of Spain3.1 Political influence 3.2 Foreign policy4 Queen Dowager 5 Issue 6 Ancestry 7 Sources 8 External linksParma[edit] Elisabeth was born at the Palazzo della Pilotta
Palazzo della Pilotta
in Parma, daughter of Odoardo Farnese and Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg. Her mother later married her uncle Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth was raised in seclusion in an apartment in the Palace in Parma. She had a difficult relationship with her mother, but was reportedly deeply devoted to her uncle-stepfather
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Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.29 billion members worldwide.[4] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation.[5] Headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, the church's doctrines are summarised in the Nicene Creed
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List Of Spanish Monarchs
This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain
Spain
in the modern sense of the word. The forerunners of the monarchs of the Spanish throne were the following:Kings of the Visigoths Kings of Asturias Kings of Navarre Kings of León Kings of Galicia Kings of Aragon Kings of CastileThese seven lineages were eventually united by the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon
(king of the Crown of Aragon) and Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
(queen of the Crown of Castile). Although their kingdoms continued to be separate, with their personal union they ruled them together as one dominion. Ferdinand also conquered the southern part of Navarre
Navarre
and annexed it to what was to become Spain. Isabella left her kingdom to her daughter Joanna of Castile
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Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire
Empire
(Spanish: Imperio Español) was one of the largest empires in history. At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines.[1] From the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World.[2][3] The crown's main source of wealth was from gold and silver mined in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs,[4] through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century
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Kingdom Of Naples
The Kingdom of Naples
Naples
(Latin: Regnum Neapolitanum; Italian: Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
south of the Papal States
Papal States
between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers
Sicilian Vespers
(1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily.[1] Naples
Naples
continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties
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Kingdom Of Sicily
the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1194–1254) (also with the Kingdom of Jerusalem: 1225–1228) the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(1412–1516) the
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Enlightened Absolutism
Enlightened absolutism
Enlightened absolutism
refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment.Contents1 History 2 Political reforms 3 Major nations 4 Associated rulers 5 Chinese Legalism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingHistory[edit] Enlightened absolutism
Enlightened absolutism
is the theme of an essay by Frederick the Great, who ruled Prussia
Prussia
from 1740 to 1786, defending this system of government.[1] When the prominent French Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire
Voltaire
fell out of favor in France, he eagerly accepted Frederick's invitation to live at his palace. He believed that an enlightened monarchy was the only real way for society to advance. Frederick the Great
Frederick the Great
was an enthusiast of French ideas
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List Of Dukes Of Parma
HRH The Duke of Parma HRH The Duchess of ParmaHRH The Prince of Piacenza HRH The Marchioness of Castell'Arquato HRH The Countess of BarcetoHRH The Countess of Colorno HRH The Count of Bardi HRH The Countess of BardiHRH Princess Zita HRH Princess GloriaHRH The Marchioness of SalaExtended ducal familyDescendants of Xavier, Duke of Parma:HRH Princess Maria Francisca HRH Princess Maria Teresa HRH Princess Cecilia HRH Princess Maria de las Nieves HRH Prince Sixte HenriDescendants of Felix, Prince Consort of Luxembourg:HRH Grand Duke Jean of LuxembourgHIRH Archduchess Marie Astrid of Austria HRH The Grand Duke of Luxembourg HRH Prince Jean of Luxembourg HRH Princess Margaretha of Liechtenstein HRH Prince Guillaume of Luxembourg HRH Princess Charlotte, Mrs Cunningham HRH Prince Robert of Luxembourg HRH Princess Julie of LuxembourgHRH The Dowager Countess of Holstein-Ledreborg HRH The Dowager Princess of LigneD
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King Of Poland
Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I[4] and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II
Przemysł II
or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth
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Naples
Naples
Naples
(/ˈneɪpəlz/; Italian: Napoli [ˈnaːpoli] ( listen), Neapolitan: Napule [ˈnɑːpələ] or [ˈnɑːpulə]; Latin: Neapolis; Ancient Greek: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania
Campania
and the third-largest municipality in Italy
Italy
after Rome
Rome
and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples
Metropolitan City of Naples
had a population of 3,115,320
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Stanley Payne
Stanley George Payne (born September 9, 1934 in Denton, Texas) is an American historian of modern Spain
Spain
and European Fascism
Fascism
at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He retired from full-time teaching in 2004 and is currently Professor Emeritus at its Department of History.[1] Payne is one of the most famous modern theorists of fascism.[2]Contents1 Work 2 Education 3 Books 4 References 5 External linksWork[edit] Known for his typological description of fascism, Payne is a specialist in the Spanish fascist movement and has also produced comparative analyses of Western European fascism. He asserts that there were some specific ways in which National Socialism
National Socialism
paralleled Russian communism to a much greater degree than Fascism
Fascism
was capable of doing
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