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Charles III Of Spain
CHARLES III (Spanish : _Carlos_; Italian : _Carlo_; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain and the Spanish Indies (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as CHARLES VII and Sicily as CHARLES V (1734–1759), kingdoms he abdicated to his son Ferdinand . He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain , and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese . A proponent of enlightened absolutism , he suceeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother King Ferdinand VI of Spain , who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza , as CHARLES I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese . In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony , daughter of Polish king Augustus III and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood
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Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
CHARLES VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; German : Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I , as Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
, King of Bohemia (as CHARLES II), King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia , Serbia and Archduke of Austria
Archduke of Austria
(as CHARLES III) in 1711. He unsuccessfully claimed the throne of Spain following the death of his relative, Charles II , in 1700. He married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , by whom he had his two children: Maria Theresa , the last Habsburg sovereign, and Maria Anna , Governess of the Austrian Netherlands
Austrian Netherlands
. Four years before the birth of Maria Theresa, faced with his lack of male heirs, Charles provided for a male-line succession failure with the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

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War Of The Spanish Succession
Treaties of Utrecht
Utrecht
, Rastatt , and Baden : * Austria, Great Britain and the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
recognise Philip V as King of
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King Charles III (play)
KING CHARLES III is a 2014 play in blank verse by Mike Bartlett . It was premiered at the Almeida Theatre
Almeida Theatre
, London
London
, in April 2014 and centres on the accession and reign of King Charles III of the United Kingdom, the possible regnal name of the real Charles, Prince of Wales , and the limiting of the freedom of the press after the News International phone hacking scandal . A 90-minute television adaptation was broadcast on BBC Two
BBC Two
on 10 May, 2017
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Anton Raphael Mengs
ANTON RAPHAEL MENGS (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid
Madrid
and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career * 2.1 Theoretical writings * 3 Selected works * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Sources * 8 External links BIOGRAPHY Self-portrait, 1744 Mengs was born in 1728 at Ústí nad Labem (German : Aussig) in Bohemia , the son of Ismael Mengs (da), a Danish painter who eventually established himself at Dresden
Dresden
. His elder sister, Therese Maron was also a painter. In 1741 Mengs's father took him from Dresden to Rome. In 1749 he was appointed first painter to Frederick Augustus , elector of Saxony, but this did not prevent him from continuing to spend much of his time in Rome. There he married Margarita Guazzi, who had sat for him as a model in 1748
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King Of Spain
The MONARCHY OF SPAIN (Spanish : Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as THE CROWN (la Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain
Spain
. It used to be also called the Hispanic Monarchy
Monarchy
(Monarquía Hispánica). The monarchy comprises the reigning monarch , his or her family, and the royal household organization which supports and facilitates the monarch in the exercise of his duties and prerogatives. The Spanish monarchy is represented by King Felipe VI , his wife Queen Letizia , and their daughters Leonor, Princess of Asturias , and Infanta
Infanta
Sofía . The Spanish Constitution
Constitution
of 1978 reestablished a constitutional monarchy as the form of government for Spain
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List Of Titles And Honours Of The Spanish Crown
The current Spanish constitution refers to the monarchy as "the Crown of Spain" and the constitutional title of the monarch is simply rey/reina de España: that is, "king/queen of Spain". However, the constitution allows for the use of other HISTORIC TITLES PERTAINING TO THE SPANISH MONARCHY, without specifying them. A decree promulgated 6 November 1987 at the Council of Ministers regulates the titles further, and on that basis the monarch of Spain has a right to use ("may use") those other titles appertaining to the Crown. Contrary to some belief, the long titulary that contains the list of over 20 kingdoms is not in state use, nor is it used in Spanish diplomacy. In fact, it has never been in use in that form, as "Spain" was never a part of the list in pre-1837 era when the long list was officially used. Spain, mentioned differently in the titulary depending on which monarch was reigning, was for more than three centuries also symbolized by the long list that started "..
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Ferdinand VI Of Spain
FERDINAND VI (Spanish : Fernando VI; 23 September 1713 – 10 August 1759), called THE LEARNED, was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 9 July 1746 until his death in 1759, the third ruler of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty. He was the fourth son of the previous monarch Philip V and his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy . CONTENTS* 1 Early life * 1.1 Marriage * 2 Beginning of the reign * 3 The Projects of Ensenada * 3.1 Reforms * 4 Foreign policy * 5 Death * 6 In popular culture * 7 Heraldry * 8 Ancestry * 9 References EARLY LIFE Aged 10 as an Infante, by Jean Ranc Born at the Royal Alcázar of Madrid
Madrid
, Ferdinand endured a lonely childhood. His stepmother, the domineering Elisabeth Farnese , had no affection except for her own children, and looked upon Ferdinand as an obstacle to their fortunes. The hypochondria of his father left Elisabeth mistress of the palace
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Charles IV Of Spain
CHARLES IV (Spanish : Carlos Antonio Pascual Francisco Javier Juan Nepomuceno José Januario Serafín Diego; 11 November 1748 – 20 January 1819) was King of Spain
King of Spain
from 14 December 1788, until his abdication on 19 March 1808. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Reign * 3 Later life and death * 4 Character * 5 Marriage and children * 6 Ancestors * 7 Titles and styles * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EARLY LIFECharles was the second son of Charles III and his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony . He was born in Naples
Naples
(11 November 1748), while his father was King of Naples
Naples
and Sicily . His elder brother, Don Felipe , was passed over for both thrones, due to his learning disabilities and epilepsy . In Naples
Naples
and Sicily, Charles was referred to as the Prince of Taranto
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List Of Monarchs Of Naples
The following is a list of RULERS OF THE KINGDOM OF NAPLES , from its first separation from the Kingdom of Sicily to its merger with the same into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
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List Of Monarchs Of Sicily
CONTENTS * 1 Emirs of Sicily
Sicily
* 2 Counts of Sicily
Sicily
* 2.1 House of Hauteville, 1071-1140 * 3 Kings of Sicily
Sicily
* 3.1 House of Hauteville, 1130–1198 * 3.2 House of Hohenstaufen, 1194–1266 * 3.2.1 Plantagenet Dynasty * 3.3 Capetian House of Anjou, 1266–1282 * 3.4 House of Barcelona, 1282–1410 * 3.5 House of Trastámara, 1412–1516 * 3.6 House of Habsburg, 1516–1713 * 3.7 House of Savoy, 1713–1720 * 3.8 House of Habsburg, 1720–1735 * 3.9 House of Bourbon 1735–1816 * 4 Family tree * 5 See also EMIRS OF SICILYSee Emirate of Sicily
Emirate of Sicily
COUNTS OF SICILY Sicily
Sicily
was granted, pending its Christian reconquest, to Robert Guiscard as "duke" in 1059 by Pope Nicholas II . The Guiscard granted it as a county to his brother Roger
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Palermo Cathedral
PALERMO CATHEDRAL is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Palermo
Palermo
, located in Palermo
Palermo
, Sicily
Sicily
, southern Italy . It is dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary
Assumption of the Virgin Mary
. As an architectural complex, it is characterized by the presence of different styles, due to a long history of additions, alterations and restorations, the last of which occurred in the 18th century
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Ferdinand I Of The Two Sicilies
FERDINAND I (12 January 1751 – 4 January 1825), was the King of the Two Sicilies
Two Sicilies
from 1816, after his restoration following victory in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. Before that he had been, since 1759, FERDINAND IV of the Kingdom of Naples
Naples
and FERDINAND III of the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
. He was deposed twice from the throne of Naples: once by the revolutionary Parthenopean Republicfor six months in 1799 and again by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1805. Ferdinand was the third son of King Charles III of Spain, Naples
Naples
and Sicily
Sicily
by his wife, Maria Amalia of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony
. On 10 August 1759, Charles succeeded his elder brother, Ferdinand VI , but treaty provisions made Charles ineligible to hold all three crowns
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Duke Of Parma
HRH THE DUKE OF PARMA HRH The Duchess of Parma
Parma
* HRH The Hereditary Prince of Parma * HRH Princess Luisa * HRH Princess Cecilia-------------------------HRH The Countess of Colorno HRH The Count of Bardi HRH The Countess of Bardi * HRH Princess Zita * HRH Princess GloriaHRH The Marchioness of Sala Extended ducal family -------------------------Descendants of Xavier, Duke of Parma : -------------------------HRH Princess Maria Francisca
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Antonio Farnese, Duke Of Parma
ANTONIO FARNESE (29 November 1679 – 20 January 1731) was the eighth and final Farnese Duke of Parma
Parma
and Piacenza . He married, in 1727, Enrichetta d\'Este of Modena with the intention of begetting an heir; the marriage, however, was childless, leading to the succession of Charles of Spain –whose mother, Elisabeth Farnese
Elisabeth Farnese
, was Antonio's niece–to the ducal throne. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Ancestors * 3 Titles and styles * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Enrichetta d'Este of Modena, Antonio's wife. Born in Parma
Parma
, Antonio was the third son of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma
Parma
, and his wife Maria d\'Este of the Modena
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