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Charles II Of England
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He was king of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and king of England, Scotland and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death. Charles II's father, Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. Although the Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland
proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands
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John Michael Wright
John Michael Wright
John Michael Wright
(May 1617 – July 1694)[2] was a portrait painter in the Baroque
Baroque
style. Described variously as English and Scottish, Wright trained in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
under the Scots painter George Jamesone, and acquired a considerable reputation as an artist and scholar during a long sojourn in Rome. There he was admitted to the Accademia di San Luca, and was associated with some of the leading artists of his generation. He was engaged by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria, the governor of the Spanish Netherlands, to acquire artworks in Oliver Cromwell's England in 1655. He took up permanent residence in England from 1656, and served as court painter before and after the English Restoration. A convert to Roman Catholicism, he was a favourite of the restored Stuart court, a client of both Charles II and James II, and was a witness to many of the political maneuverings of the era
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English Restoration
The Restoration of the English monarchy
English monarchy
took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II
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Palace Of Whitehall
The Palace of Whitehall
Whitehall
(or Palace of White Hall) at Westminster, Middlesex, was the main residence of the English monarchs from 1530 until 1698, when most of its structures, except for Inigo Jones's Banqueting House
Banqueting House
of 1622, were destroyed by fire
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English Civil War
Parliamentarian victoryExecution of King Charles I Exile of Charles II Establishment of the republican Commonwealth under Oliver CromwellBelligerentsEnglish, Scottish, Welsh and Irish Royalists English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish ParliamentariansCommanders and leadersKing Charles I   Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
of the Rhine Charles IIEarl of Essex Thomas Fairfax Oliver CromwellCasualties and losses50,000[1] 34,000[1]127,000 noncombat deaths (including some 40,000 civilians)[a]v t eEnglish Civil WarFirst Second ThirdThe English Civil War
English Civil War
(1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's government
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Parliament Of Scotland
The Parliament of Scotland
Scotland
was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland. The parliament, like other such institutions, evolved during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
from the king's council of bishops and earls. It is first identifiable as a parliament in 1235, during the reign of Alexander II, when it was described as a "colloquium" and already possessed a political and judicial role. By the early fourteenth century, the attendance of knights and freeholders had become important, and from 1326 commissioners from the burghs attended. Consisting of the "three estates" of clergy, nobility and the burghs sitting in a single chamber, the parliament gave consent for the raising of taxation and played an important role in the administration of justice, foreign policy, war, and all manner of other legislation. Parliamentary business was also carried out by "sister" institutions, such as General Councils or Convention of Estates
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Interregnum (England)
The Interregnum was the period between the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649 and the arrival of his son Charles II in London on 29 May 1660 which marked the start of the Restoration. During the Interregnum England was under various forms of republican government (see Commonwealth of England; this article describes other facets of the Interregnum).Contents1 Politics 2 Life during the Interregnum 3 Jews in England 4 Radicals vs conservatives4.1 Levellers 4.2 Diggers 4.3 Religious sects 4.4 Conservatives5 Historical analysis 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPolitics[edit] Main article: Commonwealth of England The politics of the period were dominated by the wishes of the Grandees (Senior Officers) of the New Model Army
New Model Army
and their civilian supporters
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Commonwealth Of England
The Commonwealth
Commonwealth
was the period from 1649 to 1660 when England
England
and Wales, later along with Ireland
Ireland
and Scotland,[1] was ruled as a republic following the end of the Second English Civil War
Second English Civil War
and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England
England
to be a Commonwealth",[2] adopted by the Rump Parliament
Rump Parliament
on 19 May 1649. Power in the early Commonwealth
Commonwealth
was vested primarily in the Parliament and a Council of State
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Oliver Cromwell
English Civil War:Gainsborough Marston Moor Newbury II Naseby Langport Preston Dunbar WorcesterRoyal styles of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the CommonwealthReference style His HighnessSpoken style Your HighnessAlternative style Sir Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658)[a] was an English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector
Lord Protector
of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death, acting simultaneously as head of state and head of government of the new republic. Cromwell was born into the middle gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIII's minister Thomas Cromwell
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Battle Of Worcester
Decisive Parliamentarian victoryEscape of Charles II End of the English Civil WarBelligerents Parliamentarians RoyalistsCommanders and leaders Oliver Cromwell Charles IIStrength31,000 less than 16,000Casualties and losses200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisonersv t eThird English Civil WarDunbar Inverkeithing Warrington
Warrington
Bridge Wigan Lane Upton Worcesterv t e Scotland
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Escape Of Charles II
The escape of Charles II from England
England
in 1651 was a key episode in his life. The retreat started with the Royalist defeat at Battle of Worcester
Worcester
on 3 September 1651 when Charles was forced to flee. He had many adventures, most famously hiding up an oak tree in Boscobel
Boscobel
Wood, before setting sail at 2:00am on 15 October from Shoreham-by-Sea
Shoreham-by-Sea
and arriving in France
France
the following day
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Dutch Republic
The Hague
The Hague
(de facto)Languages Dutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, West FrisianReligion Dutch ReformedGovernment Confederative republicStadtholder •  1581–1584 William I (first) •  1751–1795 William V (last)Grand Pensionary •  1581–1585 Paulus Buys
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Spanish Netherlands
Spanish Netherlands
Netherlands
(Spanish: Países Bajos españoles; Dutch: Spaanse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas espagnols, German: Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714. This region comprised most of modern Belgium
Belgium
and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, part of southern Netherlands, and western Germany. The capital was Brussels. The Imperial fiefs of the former Burgundian Netherlands
Netherlands
had been inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
from the extinct House of Valois-Burgundy upon the death of Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
in 1482
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Cavalier Parliament
The Cavalier
Cavalier
Parliament of England
England
lasted from 8 May 1661 until 24 January 1679. It was the longest English Parliament, enduring for nearly 18 years of the quarter-century reign of Charles II of England. Like its predecessor, the Convention Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and is also known as the Pensioner Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.[1]Contents1 History 2 Officers 3 Sessions 4 Notes and references 5 See alsoHistory[edit] The first session of the Cavalier
Cavalier
Parliament opened on May 8, 1661. Among the first orders of business was the confirmation of the acts of the previous year's irregular Convention of 1660 as legitimate (notably, the Indemnity and Oblivion Act)
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Kingdom Of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King of England and later the King of Great Britain that existed on Ireland from 1542 until 1800. While ruled by the King of England in personal union with his other realms, it had its own legislature (Parliament of Ireland), its own nobility (Peerage of Ireland) and its own legal system and codes until it was merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1800. It came into being when the Parliament of Ireland passed the Crown of Ireland Act 1542 and proclaimed King Henry VIII of England as King of Ireland. The territory of the Kingdom had previously had the status of a lordship held by the Crown
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Clarendon Code
In English history, penal law refers to a specific series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England
England
against Protestant nonconformists and Catholicism, by imposing various forfeitures, civil penalties, and civil disabilities upon these dissenters. The penal laws in general were repealed in the 19th century during the process of Catholic Emancipation
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