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Charles Frederick, Grand Duke Of Baden
CHARLES FREDERICK, 1ST GRAND DUKE OF BADEN (22 November 1728 – 10 June 1811 ) was Margrave , Elector and later Grand Duke of Baden (initially only Margrave of Baden-Durlach) from 1738 until his death. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Marriages and children * 3 Ancestry * 4 References * 5 Further reading BIOGRAPHYBorn at Karlsruhe , he was the son of Hereditary Prince Frederick of Baden-Durlach and Amalia of Nassau-Dietz (13 October 1710 – 17 September 1777), the daughter of Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz . He succeeded his grandfather as Margrave of Baden-Durlach in 1738 and ruled personally from 1746 until 1771, when he inherited Baden-Baden from the Bernhard Line. Upon inheriting the latter margraviate, the original land of Baden was reunited
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Bishopric Of Strassburg
The PRINCE-BISHOPRIC OF STRASSBURG (German : Fürstbistum Straßburg) was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from the 13th century until 1803. During the late 17th century, most of its territory was annexed by France
France
; this consisted of the areas on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
, around the towns of Saverne
Saverne
, Molsheim , Benfeld
Benfeld
, Dachstein , Dambach , Dossenheim-Kochersberg , Erstein , Kästenbolz , Rhinau , and the Mundat (consisting of Rouffach
Rouffach
, Soultz , and Eguisheim
Eguisheim
). The annexations were recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Treaty of Ryswick
Treaty of Ryswick
of 1697
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Bishopric Of Speyer
The BISHOPRIC OF SPEYER, or PRINCE-BISHOPRIC OF SPEYER (formerly known as Spires in English), was an ecclesiastical principality in what are today the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
and Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
. It was secularized in 1803. The prince-bishop resided in Speyer, a Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
, until the 14th century when he moved his residence to Uddenheim ( Philippsburg
Philippsburg
), then in 1723 to Bruchsal
Bruchsal
, in large part due to the tense relationship between successive prince-bishops and the civic authorities of the Free City, officially Protestant since the Reformation. The prince-provostry of Wissemburg in Alsace was ruled by the prince-bishop of Speyer
Speyer
in a personal union
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Breisgau
BREISGAU is an area in southwest Germany
Germany
between the Rhine
Rhine
River and the foothills of the Black Forest
Black Forest
. Part of the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, it centers on the city of Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
. The district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald , which partly consists of the Breisgau, is named after the Black Forest
Black Forest
area. Parts of the Breisgau are also situated in the political districts of Freiburg
Freiburg
im Breisgau and Emmendingen
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Bishopric Of Basel
The word DIOCESE (/ˈdaɪ.ə.sɪs/ ) is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to an administrative territorial entity . In the Western Church, the district is under the supervision of a bishop (who may have assistant bishops to help him or her) and is divided into parishes under the care of priests; but in the Eastern Church, the word denotes the area under the jurisdiction of a patriarch and the bishops under his jurisdiction administer parishes. This structure of church governance is known as episcopal polity . The word DIOCESAN means relating or pertaining to a diocese. It can also be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese
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Bishopric Of Constance
The BISHOPRIC OF CONSTANCE, or PRINCE-BISHOPRIC OF CONSTANCE, (German : Hochstift Konstanz, Fürstbistum Konstanz) was a Prince-Bishopric and Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from the mid–12th century until its secularisation in 1802–1803. The much larger Roman Catholic DIOCESE OF KONSTANZ existed from about 585 until its dissolution in 1821. It belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Mainz since 780/782
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Torture
TORTURE (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act ; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict pain without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture. Torture
Torture
has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer
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Serfdom
SERFDOM is the status of many peasants under feudalism , specifically relating to manorialism . It was a condition of bondage , which developed primarily during the High Middle Ages in Europe and lasted in some countries until the mid-19th century. Serfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord of the manor who owned that land. In return they were entitled to protection, justice, and the right to cultivate certain fields within the manor to maintain their own subsistence. Serfs were often required not only to work on the lord's fields, but also in his mines and forests and to labor to maintain roads. The manor formed the basic unit of feudal society, and the lord of the manor and the villeins , and to a certain extent serfs, were bound legally: by taxation in the case of the former, and economically and socially in the latter
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Sigismund Von Reitzenstein
Freiherr SIGISMUND KARL JOHANN VON REITZENSTEIN (3 February 1766 in Nemmersdorf - 5 March 1847 in Karlsruhe) was the first minister of state of the Grand Duchy of Baden
Grand Duchy of Baden
. From 1781, Reitzenstein studied law in Göttingen and Erlangen before getting a position in the Principality of Bayreuth
Principality of Bayreuth
. In 1788 he took service in the Margravate of Baden in Karlsruhe. He advanced quickly, first taking part in the secret council of the court and then advancing to chamberlain in 1790 and bailif in Lörrach in 1792. Reitzenstein did much to bring Baden closer to its powerful neighbor France. He struck a separate peace with France in Basel in August 1796. He then worked in Paris from 1797 to 1803 as ambassador of Baden. During this period, not only did Baden become an Electorate, Reitzenstein oversaw the quadrupling of the size of the duchy. Reitzenstein resigned his post in 1803
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Ortenau
The ORTENAU is a historical territory in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, located on the right bank of the River Rhine
Rhine
. It covers approximately the same area as the Ortenaukreis
Ortenaukreis
, a present-day district. The Ortenau, originally called MORTENAU, was an early medieval county (Gau ) in the Duchy of Swabia
Duchy of Swabia
. It was first mentioned in 763. In 1007, the Ortenau
Ortenau
was given to the Bishopric of Bamberg . In the late 13th century, the county disintegrated, and several smaller states formed in its place. Parts fell to the Bishopric of Strasbourg ; the territories that remained in the possession of the king formed a Landvogtei , the Landvogtei Ortenau
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Confederation Of The Rhine
The CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE (German : Rheinbund; French : officially États confédérés du Rhin , but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire
First French Empire
. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon
Napoleon
after he defeated Austria
Austria
and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz . The Treaty of Pressburg , in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813. The members of the confederation were German princes (Fürsten ) from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. They were later joined by 19 others, all together ruling a total of over 15 million subjects providing a significant strategic advantage to the French Empire on its eastern front
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Maximilian I Joseph Of Bavaria
MAXIMILIAN I JOSEPH (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince- Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1805, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Birkenfeld- Zweibrücken , a branch of the House of Wittelsbach
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Grand Ducal Highness
His or Her GRAND DUCAL HIGHNESS (abbreviation : HGDH) is a style of address used by the non-reigning members of some German ruling families headed by a Grand Duke
Grand Duke
. No currently reigning family employs the style, although it was used most recently by the younger sisters of the late Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
. Since Grand Duchess Charlotte's marriage to Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma , all of their male-line descendants have used the style Royal Highness , which he bore. A reigning grand duke, his heir apparent, and their spouses would use the style of Royal Highness . The male line descendants of a reigning grand duke, other than the heir, would use the style Grand Ducal Highness. This practice was followed by the ruling families of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
, Hesse and by Rhine , and Baden
Baden

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Bavaria
Anthem: Bayernhymne
Bayernhymne
(German ) "Hymn of Bavaria" Coordinates: 48°46′39″N 11°25′52″E / 48.77750°N 11.43111°E / 48.77750; 11.43111 COUNTRY Germany
Germany

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Prince Albert Of Prussia (1809–1872)
PRINCE ALBERT OF PRUSSIA (Frederick Henry Albert; German: Friedrich Heinrich Albrecht; 4 October 1809, in Königsberg
Königsberg
– 14 October 1872, in Berlin) was a Prussian colonel general . Albert was the fifth son and youngest child of King Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz . His parents had fled to East Prussia
Prussia
after the occupation of Berlin by Napoleon . Two of Albert's elder brothers were Frederick William IV , King of Prussia
Prussia
from 1840 till 1861, and William I , King of Prussia
Prussia
from 1861 to 1888 and German Emperor from 1871 until 1888
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HRH
ROYAL HIGHNESS (abbreviation HRH) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families , usually princes other than monarchs and their female consorts (i.e., kings and queens). When used as a direct form of address, spoken or written, it takes the form "Your Royal Highness". When used as a third-person reference, it is gender-specific (His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness, both abbreviated HRH) and, in plural, Their Royal Highnesses (TRH). Holders of the style Royal Highness generally rank below holders of the style Imperial Highness , but above those addressed as Grand Ducal Highness , Highness , Serene Highness and some other styles
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