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Charax Spasinu
Spasinu Charax /spæsɪnuː tʃæræks/, or Charax Spasinu, Charax Pasinu, Charax Spasinou (Ancient Greek: Σπασίνου Χάραξ), Alexandria (Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια), and Antiochia in Susiana (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια τῆς Σουσιανῆς) was an ancient port at the head of the Persian Gulf, and the capital of the ancient kingdom of Characene.Contents1 Etymology 2 Location of Charax 3 Archaeology 4 History 5 Economy 6 Coins 7 Notable persons 8 Footnotes 9 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The name Charax, probably from Greek Χάραξ,[1] literally means "palisaded fort", and was applied to several fortified Seleucid
Seleucid
towns. Charax was originally named Alexandria, after Alexander the Great, and was perhaps even personally founded by him. After destruction by floods, it was rebuilt by Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV
(175-164 BC) and renamed Antiochia
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Pearl Diving
Pearl
Pearl
hunting is the act of recovering pearls from wild mollusks, usually oysters or mussels, in the sea or fresh water. Pearl
Pearl
hunting used to be prevalent in the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region and Japan, but also occurred in other regions.Contents1 History 2 Pearl
Pearl
hunting in colonial Latin America2.1 Process2.1.1 Venezuela 2.1.2 Panama3 Present 4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit]A piece of clothing used by Kuwaiti divers searching for pearls from the Maritime Museum in Kuwait
Kuwait
City, KuwaitA Ceylon Pearl
Pearl
Merchant (p.108, 1849)[1]Before the beginning of the 20th century, the only means of obtaining pearls was by manually gathering very large numbers of pearl oysters or mussels from the ocean floor or lake or river bottom
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Arabia
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia[1] (Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية‎ Shibhu al-jazīrati al-ʿarabiyya, ‘Arabian island’ or Arabic: جزيرة العرب‎ Jazīratu Al-ʿArab, ‘Island of the Arabs’),[2] is a peninsula of Western Asia
Asia
situated northeast of Africa
Africa
on the Arabian plate
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Meredates Of Characene
Meredates was a Parthian prince who ruled the state of Characene, a vassal of the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
and important trading port, which he ruled from 131 to 150/151. He is known to history only from coinage he minted and a single bronze statue.[1][2] In 1984 a bronze statue was uncovered in Seleucia. The statue of Hercules
Hercules
has an inscription in Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Parthian inscribed on the thighs. The inscription reports that year 151 the Parthian King Vologases IV fought Meredates of Characene
Characene
and the statue itself was brought out of Characene
Characene
and set up in the Temple of Apollo
Apollo
in Seleucia.[3] Meredates is also known from few coins, and by an inscription found in Palmyra
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Pacorus II Of Parthia
Pacorus II
Pacorus II
(Persian: پاکور دوم‎, flourished 1st century & first half of second century) was king of the Parthian Empire from 78 to 105.Contents1 Origins 2 Rule in Atropatene 3 Rule in Persia 4 Offspring 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksOrigins[edit] Pacorus II
Pacorus II
was the son of Vonones II
Vonones II
and a Greek concubine, thus making him of mixed Iranian and Greek ancestry. Pacorus II
Pacorus II
was born and raised during his father’s kingship of Atropatene. Pacorus II was the namesake of his relative, a previous ruling Parthian King Pacorus I. Rule in Atropatene[edit] When Pacorus II's father died in 51, his brother Vologases I succeeded his father as Parthian King. Vologases I had given Pacorus II
Pacorus II
their paternal dominion the Kingdom of Atropatene
Atropatene
to rule as King
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Coin
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest value coin in circulation (i.e. excluding bullion coins) is worth less than the lowest-value note. In the last hundred years, the face value of circulation coins has occasionally been lower than the value of the metal they contain, for example due to inflation
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Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I
or Ardeshir I (Middle Persian:, New Persian: اردشیر بابکان, Ardashir-e Bābakān), also known as Ardashir the Unifier[3] (180–242 AD), was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah Artabanus V on the Hormozdgan plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty and established the Sasanian dynasty. Afterwards, Ardashir called himself "shahanshah" and began conquering the land that he called Iran.[4][5] There are various historical reports about Ardashir's lineage and ancestry. According to Al-Tabari's report, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan
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Fars (East Syrian Ecclesiastical Province)
The province of Fars, the historic cradle of Persian civilisation, was a metropolitan province of the Church of the East
Church of the East
between the sixth and twelfth centuries
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Sasanian Empire
Temporarily controlled during the Byzantine– Sasanian
Sasanian
War of 602–628:  Abkhazia[12]  Russia (  Dagestan
Dagestan
and  Chechnya)  Turkey  Lebanon  Israel   Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
( West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza strip)[13]  Jordan  EgyptPart of a series on theHistory of IranMythological historyPishdadian dynasty Kayanian dynastyAncient periodBCPrehistory of Iran Ancient Times–4000Kura–Araxes culture 3400–2000Proto-Elamite 3200–2700Jiroft culture c. 3100 – c. 2200Elam 2700–539 Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire 2400–2150Kassites c. 1500 – c
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Nestorian Church
The Church of the East
Church of the East
(Syriac: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ‎ Ēdṯāʾ d-Maḏenḥā), also known as the Nestorian Church,[note 1] was an Eastern Christian Church originating during the late 1st century AD in Assyria, then the satrapy of Assuristan
Assuristan
in the Parthian Empire, before spreading to other parts of Asia
Asia
during the late antiquity period and throughout the middle ages. It originated as an eastern branch of Syriac Christianity, and used the East Syriac Rite
East Syriac Rite
in liturgy. It developed distinctive theological and ecclesiological traditions, and played a major role in the history of Christianity in Asia
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Mint (coin)
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency. The history of mints correlates closely with the history of coins. In the beginning, hammered coinage or cast coinage were the chief means of coin minting, with resulting production runs numbering as little as the hundreds or thousands. In modern mints, coin dies are manufactured in large numbers and planchets are made into milled coins by the billions. With the mass production of currency, the production cost is weighed when minting coins
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Vassal
A vassal[1] is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief.[2] The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, fealty (fidelitas) was sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch.[3]Contents1 Western vassalage 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" 3 Feudal
Feudal
Japanese equivalents 4 See also4.1 Similar terms5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksWestern vassalage[edit] In fully developed vassalage, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty, including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Multi-ethnic
Multiracial
Multiracial
is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.[1] Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. While some of the terms used in the past are considered insulting and offensive, there are many modern terms that multiracial people identify with. These include mixed-race (or simply "mixed"), biracial, multiracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, half, half-and-half, métis, creole, mestizo, mulatto, melungeon, criollo, chindian, dougla, quadroon, zambo, eurasian, hāfu, garifuna and pardo. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found that the multiracial population is continuing to grow. In many countries of Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean, mixed-race people make up the majority of the population
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Seleucids
The Seleucid Empire
Empire
(/sɪˈljuːsɪd/;[6] Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic
Hellenistic
state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.[7][8][9][10] Seleucus received Babylonia
Babylonia
(321 BC), and from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's near-eastern territories
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Nabataean
The Nabataeans, also Nabateans (/ˌnæbəˈtiːənz/; Arabic: الأنباط‎ al-ʾAnbāṭ , compare Ancient Greek: Ναβαταῖος, Latin: Nabataeus), were an Arab[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] people who inhabited northern Arabia
Arabia
and the Southern Levant. Their settlements, most prominently the assumed capital city of Raqmu, now called Petra,[1] gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Arabia
Arabia
and Syria, from the Euphrates
Euphrates
to the Red Sea
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