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Charaka Samhita
Charaka
Charaka
(Sanskrit: चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE[1][2]) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is known for authoring the medical treatise, the Charaka
Charaka
Samhita. Charaka
Charaka
was resident of Kapisthal
Kapisthal
(now known as Kapurthala), located between Iravati (Ravi River) and Chandrabagha (Chenab River) rivers in Panchanada (Punjab). Panchanada was name of Punjab
Punjab
in Mahabharata.[3][4][5][6] He is well known as the "Indian father of medicine".[7]Contents1 Charaka
Charaka
and the Ayurveda 2 Contributions 3 Influences 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Charaka
Charaka
and the Ayurveda[edit] The term Charaka
Charaka
is a label said to apply to "wandering scholars" or "wandering physicians"
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Sushruta
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard"[1]) was an ancient Indian physician, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: Suśruta-saṃhitā). The Mahabharata, an ancient Indian epic text, represents him as a son of Vishvamitra, which coincides with the present recension of Sushruta
Sushruta
Samhita.[2] Kunjalal Bhisagratna opined that it is safe to assume that Sushruta
Sushruta
was of the clan of Vishvamitra.[3]He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of plastic surgery".[4] The Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D
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Dosha
A dosha (Sanskrit दोषः, doṣa), according to Ayurveda, is one of three substances that are present in a person's body. In literature since the twentieth century, this idea is called "the three-dosha theory (Sanskrit त्रिदोषोपदेशः, tridoṣa-upadeśaḥ).[1]" Authoritative Ayurvedic treatises describe how the quantity and quality of these three substances fluctuates in the body, according to the seasons, time of day, diet and several other factors. Ayurvedic doshas are markedly different from Greek Humors. [2] The central concept of Ayurvedic medicine is the theory that health exists when there is a balance between three fundamental bodily bio-elements or doshas called Vata, Pitta and Kapha.[3]Vāta or Vata (airy element). It is characterised by properties of dry, cold, light, minute, and movement. All movement in the body is due to property of vata. Pain is the characteristic feature of deranged vata
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Drug
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.[2][3] In pharmacology, a pharmaceutical drug, also called a medication or medicine, is a chemical substance used to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to promote well-being.[2] Traditionally drugs were obtained through extraction from medicinal plants, but more recently also by organic synthesis.[4] Pharmaceutical drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders.[5] Pharmaceutical drugs are often classified into drug classes—groups of related drugs that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (binding to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and that are used to treat the same disease.[6][verification needed][7] The Anatomical Therape
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Microorganism
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy
(Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.[1] Anatomy
Anatomy
is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times.[2] Anatomy
Anatomy
is inherently tied to embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny,[3] as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated over immediate (embryology) and long (evolution) timescales. Human anatomy is one of the basic essential sciences of medicine.[4] Anatomy and physiology, which study (respectively) the structure and function of organisms and their parts, make a natural pair of related disciplines, and they are often studied together. The discipline of anatomy is divided into macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
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Nutrient
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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OCLC
OCLC, currently incorporated as OCLC
OCLC
Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated,[3] is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs".[4] It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC
OCLC
and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog (OPAC) in the world
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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