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Chaos Communication Congress
The CHAOS COMMUNICATION CONGRESS is an annual conference organized by the Chaos Computer Club . The congress features a variety of lectures and workshops on technical and political issues related to Security, Cryptography, Privacy and online Freedom of Speech . The event takes place regularly at the end of the year since 1984, with the current date and duration (December 27–30) established in 2005. It is considered one of the largest events of this kind, alongside the DEF CON in Las Vegas. The congress started out in 1984 in Hamburg , moved to Berlin in 1998, and back to Hamburg in 2012, having exceeded the capacity of the Berlin venue with more than 4500 attendees. Since then, the meetings in the considerably larger venue in Hamburg continue to attract an increasing number of people, around 6,600 attendees in 2012 and most recently more than 13,000 in 2015
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Security Hacker
A SECURITY HACKER is someone who seeks to breach defenses and exploit weaknesses in a computer system or network . Hackers may be motivated by a multitude of reasons, such as profit, protest, information gathering, challenge, recreation, or to evaluate system weaknesses to assist in formulating defenses against potential hackers. The subculture that has evolved around hackers is often referred to as the computer underground. There is a longstanding controversy about the term's true meaning. In this controversy, the term hacker is reclaimed by computer programmers who argue that it refers simply to someone with an advanced understanding of computers and computer networks, and that CRACKER is the more appropriate term for those who break into computers, whether computer criminal (black hats ) or computer security expert (white hats ). A 2014 article concluded that "... the black-hat meaning still prevails among the general public"
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Timeline Of Computer Security Hacker History
The TIMELINE OF COMPUTER SECURITY HACKER HISTORY covers important and noteworthy events in the history of hacking and cracking
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Phreaking
PHREAKING is a slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks. The term phreak is a sensational spelling of the word freak with the ph- from phone , and may also refer to the use of various audio frequencies to manipulate a phone system. Phreak, phreaker, or phone phreak are names used for and by individuals who participate in phreaking. The term first referred to groups who had reverse engineered the system of tones used to route long-distance calls. By re-creating these tones, phreaks could switch calls from the phone handset, allowing free calls to be made around the world
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Cryptovirology
CRYPTOVIROLOGY is a field that studies how to use cryptography to design powerful malicious software . The field was born with the observation that public-key cryptography can be used to break the symmetry between what an antivirus analyst sees regarding malware and what the attacker sees. The antivirus analyst sees a public key contained in the malware whereas the attacker sees the public key contained in the malware as well as the corresponding private key (outside the malware) since the attacker created the key pair for the attack. The public key allows the malware to perform trapdoor one-way operations on the victim's computer that only the attacker can undo. The first cryptovirology attack, invented by Adam L. Young and Moti Yung , is called "cryptoviral extortion" and it was presented at the 1996 IEEE Security "> * ^ A B A. Young, M. Yung. "Cryptovirology: Extortion-Based Security Threats and Countermeasures". IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy, May 6–8, 1996. pp
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Hacker Ethic
HACKER ETHIC is a term for the moral values and philosophy that are common in hacker culture . In other words, those who possess positive hacker ethic acknowledge that sharing information and data responsibly is very beneficial and helpful. Whilst the philosophy originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in the 1950s–1960s, the term hacker ethic is attributed to journalist Steven Levy
Steven Levy
as described in his 1984 book titled Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution . The key points within this ethic are access, freedom of information, and improvement to quality of life. While some tenets of hacker ethic were described in other texts like Computer Lib/Dream Machines (1974) by Ted Nelson
Ted Nelson
, Levy appears to have been the first to document both the philosophy and the founders of the philosophy
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Hacker Manifesto
THE CONSCIENCE OF A HACKER (also known as THE HACKER MANIFESTO) is a small essay written January 8, 1986 by a computer security hacker who went by the handle (or pseudonym ) of The Mentor (born Loyd Blankenship ), who belonged to the 2nd generation of Legion of Doom . It was written after the author's arrest, and first published in the underground hacker ezine Phrack
Phrack
and can be found on many websites, as well as on T-shirts and in films. Considered a cornerstone of hacker culture , The Manifesto acts as a guideline to hackers across the globe, especially those new to the field. It serves as an ethical foundation for hacking, and asserts that there is a point to hacking that supersedes selfish desires to exploit or harm other people, and that technology should be used to expand our horizons and try to keep the world free
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Black Hat
A BLACK HAT HACKER (or BLACK-HAT HACKER) is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain". The term was coined by hacker culture theorist Richard Stallman
Richard Stallman
to contrast the exploitative hacker with the white hat hacker who hacks protectively by drawing attention to vulnerabilities in computer systems that require repair. The black hat/white hat terminology originates in the Western genre of popular American culture, in which black and white hats denote villainous and heroic cowboys respectively. Black hat
Black hat
hackers are the stereotypically illegal hacking groups often portrayed in popular culture, and are "the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal". Black hat
Black hat
hackers break into secure networks to destroy, modify, or steal data, or to make the networks unusable for authorized network users
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Grey Hat
The term "GREY HAT", "GREYHAT" or "GRAY HAT" refers to a computer hacker or computer security expert who may sometimes violate laws or typical ethical standards , but does not have the malicious intent typical of a black hat hacker. The term began to be used in the late, derived from the concepts of "white hat " and "black hat " hackers. When a white hat hacker discovers a vulnerability , they will exploit it only with permission and not divulge its existence until it has been fixed, whereas the black hat will illegally exploit it and/or tell others how to do so. The grey hat will neither illegally exploit it, nor tell others how to do so. A further difference among these types of hacker lies in their methods of discovering vulnerabilities
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White Hat (computer Security)
The term "WHITE HAT" in Internet slang refers to an ethical computer hacker , or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and in other testing methodologies to ensure the security of an organization's information systems . Ethical hacking is a term coined by IBM
IBM
meant to imply a broader category than just penetration testing. Contrasted with black hat , a malicious hacker, the name comes from Western films , where heroic and antagonistic cowboys might traditionally wear a white and a black hat respectively . White-hat hackers may also work in teams called "sneakers ", red teams , or tiger teams
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Black Hat Briefings
BLACK HAT BRIEFINGS (commonly referred to as BLACK HAT) is a computer security conference that provides security consulting, training, and briefings to hackers, corporations, and government agencies around the world. Black Hat brings together a variety of people interested in information security ranging from non-technical individuals, executives, hackers, and industry leading security professionals. The conference takes place regularly in Las Vegas , Barcelona
Barcelona
, Amsterdam , Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
. The conference has also been hosted in Tokyo
Tokyo
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in the past. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Culture * 3 Purpose * 4 Arsenal * 5 Antics and disclosures * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYBlack Hat was founded in 1997 by Jeff Moss , who also founded DEF CON . Today, Moss is the Conference Chair of the Black Hat Review Board
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DEF CON
DEF CON
DEF CON
(also written as DEFCON, DEFCON, OR DC) is one of the world's largest hacker conventions , held annually in Las Vegas
Las Vegas
, Nevada
Nevada
, with the first DEF CON
DEF CON
taking place in June 1993. Many of the attendees at DEF CON
DEF CON
include computer security professionals, journalists , lawyers , federal government employees, security researchers, students, and hackers with a general interest in software , computer architecture , phone phreaking , hardware modification, and anything else that can be "hacked." The event consists of several tracks of speakers about computer- and hacking-related subjects, as well as social events Wargames and contests in everything from creating the longest Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
connection (aircrack-ng) and hacking computer systems to who can most effectively cool a beer in the Nevada heat
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Computer Crime
CYBER CRIME, or COMPUTER RELATED CRIME, is crime that involves a computer and a network . The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrimes can be defined as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (networks including but not limited to Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS)". Cybercrime may threaten a person or a nation's security and financial health. Issues surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking , copyright infringement , unwarranted mass-surveillance , child pornography , and child grooming
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Crimeware
CRIMEWARE is a class of malware designed specifically to automate cybercrime . Crimeware
Crimeware
(as distinct from spyware and adware ) is designed to perpetrate identity theft through social engineering or technical stealth in order to access a computer user's financial and retail accounts for the purpose of taking funds from those accounts or completing unauthorized transactions that enrich the cyberthief. Alternatively, crimeware may steal confidential or sensitive corporate information. Crimeware
Crimeware
represents a growing problem in network security as many malicious code threats seek to pilfer confidential information
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List Of Computer Criminals
Convicted computer criminals are people who are caught and convicted of computer crimes such as breaking into computers or computer networks . Computer crime
Computer crime
can be broadly defined as criminal activity involving information technology infrastructure, including illegal access (unauthorized access), illegal interception (by technical means of non-public transmissions of computer data to, from or within a computer system), data interference (unauthorized damaging, deletion, deterioration, alteration or suppression of computer data), systems interference (interfering with the functioning of a computer system by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering or suppressing computer data), misuse of devices, forgery (or identity theft ) and electronic fraud
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Script Kiddie
In programming and hacking culture, a SCRIPT KIDDIE or SKIDDIE is an unskilled individual who uses scripts or programs developed by others to attack computer systems and networks and deface websites . It is generally assumed that most script kiddies are juveniles who lack the ability to write sophisticated programs or exploits on their own and that their objective is to try to impress their friends or gain credit in computer-enthusiast communities. However, the term does not relate to the actual age of the participant. The term is generally considered to be pejorative . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links CHARACTERISTICSIn a Carnegie Mellon
Carnegie Mellon
report prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense in 2005, script kiddies are defined as The more immature but unfortunately often just as dangerous exploiter of security lapses on the Internet
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