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Chant Royal
The Chant Royal is a poetic form that is a variation of the ballad form and consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e-d-E. To add to the complexity, no rhyming word is used twice[1][2] It was introduced into French poetry in the 15th century by Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan
and Charles d'Orléans and was introduced into England towards the end of the 19th century as part of a general revival of interest in French poetic forms
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Ballad
A ballad /ˈbæləd/ is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French chanson balladée or ballade, which were originally "danced songs''. Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and song of the British Isles from the later medieval period until the 19th century. They were widely used across Europe, and later in Australia, North Africa, North America
North America
and South America. Ballads are often 13 lines with an ABABBCBC form, consisting of couplets (two lines) of rhymed verse, each of 14 syllables. Another common form is ABAB or ABCB repeated, in alternating 8 and 6 syllable lines. Many ballads were written and sold as single sheet broadsides. The form was often used by poets and composers from the 18th century onwards to produce lyrical ballads
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Stanza
In poetry, a stanza (/ˈstænzə/; from Italian stanza [ˈstantsa], "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.[1] Stanzas can have regular rhyme and metrical schemes, though stanzas are not strictly required to have either. There are many unique forms of stanzas. Some stanzaic forms are simple, such as four-line quatrains. Other forms are more complex, such as the Spenserian stanza. Fixed verse poems, such as sestinas, can be defined by the number and form of their stanzas. The term stanza is similar to strophe, though strophe sometimes refers to irregular set of lines, as opposed to regular, rhymed stanzas.[2] The stanza in poetry is analogous with the paragraph that is seen in prose; related thoughts are grouped into units.[3] In music, groups of lines are typically referred to as verses
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Christine De Pizan
Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan
(also seen as de Pisan; French pronunciation: [kʁistin də pizɑ̃] ( listen) ; 1364 – c. 1430) was an Italian French
Italian French
late medieval author. Her most famous literary works are The Book of the City of Ladies
The Book of the City of Ladies
and The Treasure of the City of Ladies. She served as a court writer for several dukes (Louis of Orleans, Philip the Bold
Philip the Bold
of Burgundy, and John the Fearless of Burgundy) and the French royal court during the reign of Charles VI. She wrote both poetry and prose works such as biographies
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Charles, Duke Of Orleans
Charles of Orléans
Orléans
(24 November 1394 – 5 January 1465) was Duke of Orléans
Orléans
from 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, on the orders of John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.[1] He was also Duke of Valois, Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise
Beaumont-sur-Oise
and of Blois, Lord of Coucy, and the inheritor of Asti
Asti
in Italy via his mother Valentina Visconti, daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. He is now remembered as an accomplished medieval poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, written in both French and English, during his 25 years spent as a prisoner of war.Contents1 Accession 2 Imprisonment 3 Poetry 4 Freedom 5 Marriage and children 6 Honours 7 Fictional accounts 8 Notes 9 Bibliography 10 External linksAccession[edit] Charles was born in Paris
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Sestina
A sestina (Old Occitan: cledisat [klediˈzat]; also known as sestine, sextine, sextain) is a fixed verse form consisting of six stanzas of six lines each, normally followed by a three-line envoi. The words that end each line of the first stanza are used as line endings in each of the following stanzas, rotated in a set pattern. The invention of the form is usually attributed to Arnaut Daniel, a troubadour of 12th-century Provence, and the first sestinas were written in the Occitan language
Occitan language
of that region. The form was cultivated by his fellow troubadours, then by other poets across Continental Europe
Continental Europe
in the subsequent centuries; they contributed to what would become the "standard form" of the sestina. The earliest example of the form in English appeared in 1579, though they were rarely written in Britain until the end of the 19th century
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Henry Austin Dobson
Henry Austin Dobson
Henry Austin Dobson
(18 January 1840 – 2 September 1921), commonly Austin Dobson, was an English poet and essayist.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] He was born at Plymouth, the eldest son of George Clarisse Dobson, a civil engineer, of French descent. When he was about eight, the family moved to Holyhead, and his first school was at Beaumaris in Anglesey. He was later educated at Coventry, and the Gymnase, Strasbourg. He returned at the age of sixteen with the intention of becoming a civil engineer. (His younger brother James would in fact become a noted engineer, helping complete the Buenos Aires harbour works in the 1880s and 1890s.) At the beginning of his career, he continued to study at the South Kensington School of Art, in his spare time, but without definite ambition
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Poetry
Poetry
Poetry
(the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry
Poetry
has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy
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Envoi
An envoi or envoy is a short stanza at the end of a poem such as ballad used either to address an imagined or actual person or to comment on the preceding body of the poem.Contents1 Form 2 History and development 3 Examples 4 See also 5 External linksForm[edit] The envoi is relatively fluid in form, depending on the overall form of the poem and the needs and wishes of the poet. In general, envois have fewer lines than the main stanzas of the poem. They may also repeat the rhyme words or sounds used in the main body of the poem. For example, the chant royal consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E. History and development[edit] The envoi first appears in the songs of the medieval trouvères and troubadours; it developed as an address to the poet's beloved or to a friend or patron
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Rhyme Scheme
A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes at the end of each line of a poem or song. It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhyme; lines designated with the same letter all rhyme with each other. An example of the "abab" rhyming scheme, from "To Anthea, who may Command him Anything", by Robert Herrick:Bid me to weep, and I will weep While I have eyes to see And having none, yet I will keep A heart to weep for theea b a bContents1 Function in writing 2 Examples 3 In hip-hop music 4 Number of rhyme schemes for a poem with n lines 5 References 6 External linksFunction in writing[edit] A basic distinction is between rhyme schemes that apply to a single stanza, and those that continue their pattern throughout an entire poem (see chain rhyme)
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French Poetry
French and Francophone literatureFrench literature By category French languageFrench literary historyMedieval 16th century • 17th century 18th century • 19th century 20th century • ContemporaryFrancophone literatureFrancophone literature Literature of Quebec Postcolonial literature Literature of HaitiFrench-language authorsChronological listFrench writersWriters • Novelists Playwrights • Poets Essayists Short story writersFormsNovel • Poetry
Poetry

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Chant Royal
The Chant Royal is a poetic form that is a variation of the ballad form and consists of five eleven-line stanzas with a rhyme scheme a-b-a-b-c-c-d-d-e-d-E and a five-line envoi rhyming d-d-e-d-E or a seven-line envoi c-c-d-d-e-d-E. To add to the complexity, no rhyming word is used twice[1][2] It was introduced into French poetry in the 15th century by Christine de Pizan
Christine de Pizan
and Charles d'Orléans and was introduced into England towards the end of the 19th century as part of a general revival of interest in French poetic forms
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