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Chaetoceros
See text. Chaetoceros
Chaetoceros
is probably the largest genus of marine planktonic diatoms with approximately 400 species described, although a large number of these descriptions are no longer[when?] valid. It is often very difficult to distinguish between different Chaetoceros
Chaetoceros
species.[1] Several attempts have been made to restructure this large genus into subgenera and this work is still[when?] in progress.[2][3] However, most of the effort to describe species has been focused in boreal areas, and the genus is cosmopolitan, so there are probably many tropical species still undescribed.[4] Some species are known from the fossil record, from the Quaternary of Sweden
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by change in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. The current year is 2019. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn, and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions, several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian calendar, or modern calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Taxonomy (biology)
In biology, taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus, and species
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Red Tide
Red tide
Red tide
is a common name for a phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms) when it is caused by a few species of dinoflagellates and the bloom takes on a red or brown color. Red tides are events in which estuarine, marine, or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the water column, resulting in coloration of the surface water. It is usually found in coastal areas.[1] These algae, a form of phytoplankton, are single-celled protists, plant-like organisms that can form dense, visible patches near the water's surface. Certain species of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, contain photosynthetic pigments that vary in color from green to brown to red. When the algae are present in high concentrations, the water appears to be discolored or murky, varying in color from purple to almost pink, normally being red or green
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Bibcode
The bibcode (also known as the refcode) is a compact identifier used by several astronomical data systems to uniquely specify literature references.Contents1 Adoption 2 Format 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesAdoption[edit] The Bibliographic Reference Code (refcode) was originally developed to be used in SIMBAD
SIMBAD
and the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database
(NED), but it became a de facto standard and is now used more widely, for example, by the NASA Astrophysics Data System
Astrophysics Data System
who coined and prefer the term "bibcode".[1][2]Format[edit] The code has a fixed length of 19 characters and has the formYYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPA where YYYY is the four-digit year of the reference and JJJJJ is a code indicating where the reference was published
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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John Ralfs
John Ralfs (13 September 1807 – 14 July 1890) was an English botanist. Born in Millbrook, near Southampton, he was the second son of Samuel Ralfs, a yeoman of an old family in Hampshire.[1] He has been commemorated in the names of many plant groups and taxa at many levels.[2]Contents1 Early life and education 2 Financial troubles 3 Research 4 Family life 5 Works 6 Correspondence & collaboration with other scientists 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Ralfs's father died at Mudeford
Mudeford
near Christchurch[3] before John was a year old, and the children (two sons and two daughters) were brought up at Southampton
Southampton
by their mother. After being educated privately he was articled to his uncle, a surgeon of Brentford, with whom he lived for two years and a half
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is an informal unit of geologic time,[1] subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Biddulphiineae
Biddulphiophycidae
Biddulphiophycidae
or Biddulphiineae is a grouping of Centrales.[1] In some taxonomic schemes Centrales
Centrales
or Centric diatoms are named Coscinodiscophyceae
Coscinodiscophyceae
and may have different naming of suborders and families. Description[edit] Valves primarily bipolar. They do not have a marginal ring of processes.[1] See also[edit]CoscinodiscineaeReferences[edit]^ a b Tomas, Carmelo R., ed. (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press
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Heterokont
Colored groups (alga-like) OchrophytaActinochrysophyceae, or Dictyochophyceae
Dictyochophyceae
s.l. (axodines) Bacillariophyceae
Bacillariophyceae
(diatoms) Bolidophyceae Chrysophyceae
Chrysophyceae
(golden algae) Eustigmatophyceae Pelagophyceae Phaeophyceae
Phaeophyceae
(brown algae) Phaeothamniophyceae Raphidophyceae Synurophyceae Xanthophyceae
Xanthophyceae
(yellow-green algae)Colorless groups Pseudofungi Oomycetes
Oomycetes
(water moulds) HyphochytriomycetesBigyraBigyromonadea Bicosoecea Labyrinthulomycetes
Labyrinthulomycetes
(slime nets) Opalinea Proteromonadea BlastocystisSynonymsStramenopiles Patterson, 1989[2] Straminopiles Vørs, 1993[3][4] Heterokontophyta van den Hoek et al., 1995[5] Stramenopila Alexopoulos et al., 1996[6] Straminipila Dick, 2001[7] Stramenipila Dick, 2001, orth
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SAR Supergroup
Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.[2][3][4][5] The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name (alternatively spelled "RAS").[6][7] The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith
Cavalier-Smith
(2010).[8] Adl et al. (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup
SAR supergroup
as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as:[6]Sar: the least inclusive clade containing Bigelowiella natans Moestrup & Sengco 2001 (Rhizaria), Tetrahymena thermophila
Tetrahymena thermophila
Nanney & McCoy 1976 (Alveolata), and Thalassiosira pseudonana
Thalassiosira pseudonana
Cleve 1873 (Stramenopiles)
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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia
Animalia
or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.Eukaryotes (/juːˈkærioʊt, -ət/) are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike prokaryotes ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea), which have no membrane-bound organelles.[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Friederich Hustedt
Friedrich Hustedt (1886 – 1 April 1968) was a German teacher and botanist, best known for his diatom systematics research. He was born and grew up in Bremen, Germany. He taught school for 32 years, in 1924 becoming the head teacher of the school at Hauffstraße in Bremen. Hustedt initially pursued his interest in diatoms as a hobby, but his standing in the scientific community grew rapidly; thus, in 1939 he left school to study diatoms full-time. He described over 2000 diatom taxa and eventually amassed the largest private diatom collection in the world which is currently housed at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, Germany.[1][2] The phycological genera Hustedtia and Hustedtiella commemorate his name.[3] The standard author abbreviation Hust. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[4] References[edit]^ Friedrich Hustedt http://www.awi.de/en/go/hustedt/ ^ J.W.G. Lund (1969). Obituary. Br. phycol. J
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. The term "Neogene" was coined in 1853 by the Austrian palaeontologist Moritz Hörnes (1815–1868).[8] During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged
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Carboniferous
The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian
Devonian
Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian
Permian
Period, 298.9 Mya
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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