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Château De Chenonceau
The Château
Château
de Chenonceau (French: [ʃɑto də ʃənɔ̃so]) is a French château spanning the River Cher, near the small village of Chenonceaux
Chenonceaux
in the Indre-et-Loire
Indre-et-Loire
département of the Loire Valley
Loire Valley
in France
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Voltaire
François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (/voʊlˈtɛər/;[1] French: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Christianity
Christianity
as a whole and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state. Voltaire
Voltaire
was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.[2] He was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
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Francis I Of France
Francis I (French: François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France
King of France
from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. A prodigious patron of the arts, he initiated the French Renaissance by attracting many Italian artists to work on the Château de Chambord, including Leonardo da Vinci, who brought the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
with him, which Francis had acquired. Francis' reign saw important cultural changes with the rise of absolute monarchy in France, the spread of humanism and Protestantism, and the beginning of French exploration of the New World
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Henry II Of France
Henry II (French: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois
House of Valois
who ruled as King of France
King of France
from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France
Dauphin of France
upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. As a child, Henry and his elder brother spent over four years in captivity in Spain
Spain
as hostages in exchange for their father. Henry pursued his father's policies in matter of arts, wars and religion
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French Livre
The livre (English: pound) was the currency of Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
and its predecessor state of West Francia
West Francia
from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed, some concurrently. The livre was the name of both units of account and coins.Contents1 History1.1 Origin and etymology 1.2 Late medieval and early modern period 1.3 Seventeenth century 1.4 Eighteenth century 1.5 Later history2 ReferencesHistory[edit] Origin and etymology[edit] The livre was established by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver. It was subdivided into 20 sous (also sols), each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from the Latin word libra, a Roman unit of weight
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Jean-Marc Nattier
Jean-Marc Nattier
Jean-Marc Nattier
(17 March 1685 – 7 November 1766), French painter, was born in Paris, the second son of Marc Nattier (1642–1705), a portrait painter, and of Marie Courtois
Marie Courtois
(1655–1703), a miniaturist. He is noted for his portraits of the ladies of King Louis XV's court in classical mythological attire.Contents1 Life 2 Portraits 3 Select gallery 4 Sources 5 ReferencesLife[edit] He received his first instruction from his father, and from his uncle, the history painter Jean Jouvenet (1644–1717). He enrolled in the Royal Academy in 1703 and made a series of drawing of the Marie de Médicis painting cycle by Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
in the Luxembourg Palace; the publication (1710) of engravings based on these drawings made Nattier famous
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Duke Of Bourbon
Duke of Bourbon
Duke of Bourbon
(French: Duc de Bourbon) is a title in the peerage of France. It was created in the first half of the 14th century for the eldest son of Robert of France, Count of Clermont and Beatrice of Burgundy, heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. In 1416, with the death of John of Valois, the Dukes of Bourbon
Dukes of Bourbon
were simultaneously Dukes of Auvergne. Although the senior line came to an end in 1527, the cadet branch of La Marche-Vendome would later succeed to the French throne as the Royal House of Bourbon, which would later spread out to other kingdoms and duchies in Europe
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Ancien Régime
The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
(/ˌɒ̃sjæ̃ reɪˈʒiːm/; French: [ɑ̃.sjɛ̃ ʁeʒim]; French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France
Kingdom of France
from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility
French nobility
were abolished by the French Revolution.[1] The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe
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César De Bourbon, Duc De Vendôme
César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France (3 June 1594 – 22 October 1665) was the son of Henry IV of France and his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrées, and founder of the House of Bourbon-Vendome. He held the titles of 1st Duke of Vendôme, 2nd Duke of Beaufort and 2nd Duke of Étampes, but is also simply known as César de Vendôme. Through his daughter, Élisabeth de Bourbon, César was a great-great-great-grandfather of Louis XV of France, merging thereafter to the French royal line.Contents1 Biography 2 Issue 3 Ancestry 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born at the Château de Coucy in the Picardy region of France; his parents had started their affair in 1591 and César had been the couple's first child. He was legitimised in 1595, and was created the first Duke of Vendôme by his father in 1598. The Duchy of Vendôme had been owned by the Bourbon dynasty since 1393, at that point being a County then being raised by Louis XII of France to a Duchy
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Corps De Logis
Corps de logis
Corps de logis
(French pronunciation: ​[kɔʁ də lɔʒi]) is an architectural term referring to the principal block of a large, usually classical, mansion or palace. It contains the principal rooms, state apartments and an entry.[1] The grandest and finest rooms are often on the first floor above the ground level: this floor is the piano nobile. The corps de logis is usually flanked by lower secondary wings. When the secondary wings form a three sided courtyard, the courtyard is known as the Cour d'Honneur. Examples of a corps de logis can be found in many of the most notable Classical Era buildings of Europe including the Palace
Palace
of Versailles, Blenheim Palace
Palace
and the Palazzo Pitti. In France, the principal block of medieval castles and manor houses is often referred to as the corps de logis. References[edit]^ Curl, James Stevens (2006)
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Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau
Jacques I Androuet du Cerceau, also given as Du Cerceau, DuCerceau, or Ducerceau (1510–1584) was a well-known French designer of architecture, ornament, furniture, metalwork and other decorative designs during the 16th century, and the founder of the Androuet du Cerceau family. He introduced Renaissance architecture to France with the assistance of Pierre Lescot, Philibert Delorme and Jean Bullant. Though he was referred to by contemporaries as architecte and was even appointed architecte du roi, he is remembered especially for his suites of engravings produced from 1549 (beginning with a suite of Triumphal arches) from his printshop in Orléans. Androuet was born in Paris, but worked in Orléans until 1559, when he returned to Paris, where he produced his notable Livre d'architecture (dedicated to Henri II)
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Louis XIV Of France
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the God-Given (Louis Dieudonné), Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
who reigned as King of France
King of France
from 1643 until his death in 1715. Starting at the age of 4, his reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history.[1][2] In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIV's France was a leader in the growing centralization of power.[3] Louis began his personal rule of France
France
in 1661, after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin.[4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital
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House Of Bourbon
Bourbons of SpainHouse of Bourbon-Two Sicilies House of Bourbon-ParmaHouse of OrléansHouse of Orléans-Braganza House of Orléans-GallieraHouse of Condé (extinct)House of Conti House of SoissonsThe House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
(English: /ˈbɔːrbən/; French: [buʁbɔ̃]) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbonic kings first ruled France and Navarre
Navarre
in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma
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Tapestry
Tapestry
Tapestry
is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom. Tapestry
Tapestry
is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. In tapestry weaving, weft yarns are typically discontinuous; the artisan interlaces each coloured weft back and forth in its own small pattern area. It is a plain weft-faced weave having weft threads of different colours worked over portions of the warp to form the design.[1][2] Most weavers use a natural warp thread, such as linen or cotton
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