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Cervical Vertebrae
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull. Thoracic vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
in all mammalian species are those vertebrae that also carry a pair of ribs, and lie caudal to the cervical vertebrae. Further caudally follow the lumbar vertebrae, which also belong to the trunk, but do not carry ribs. In reptiles, all trunk vertebrae carry ribs and are called dorsal vertebrae. In many species, though not in mammals, the cervical vertebrae bear ribs. In many other groups, such as lizards and saurischian dinosaurs, the cervical ribs are large; in birds, they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae
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Sympathetic Nerve
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system. (The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.)[1][2] The autonomic nervous system functions to regulate the body's unconscious actions. The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response
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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney, 1802Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species,[1] ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenia
which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Articular Facet
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.[1][2][3] They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.[3] Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs.[3] The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis
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Splenius Capitis
The splenius capitis (/ˈspliːniəs ˈkæpɪtɪs/) (from Greek spléníon, meaning 'bandage', and Latin caput, meaning 'head'[1][2]) is a broad, straplike muscle in the back of the neck. It pulls on the base of the skull from the vertebrae in the neck and upper thorax. It is involved in movements such as shaking the head.Contents1 Structure 2 Function 3 Additional images 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit] It arises from the lower half of the nuchal ligament, from the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra, and from the spinous processes of the upper three or four thoracic vertebrae. The fibers of the muscle are directed upward and laterally and are inserted, under cover of the sternocleidomastoideus, into the mastoid process of the temporal bone, and into the rough surface on the occipital bone just below the lateral third of the superior nuchal line
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Trapezius
external occipital protuberance, spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12, Nuchal ligament,Occipital BoneMedial one-third of superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Ligamentum nuchae
Ligamentum nuchae
T1-T12 spine Corresponding supraspinous ligamentsInsertion nuchal ligament, medial superior nuchal line, posterior border of the lateral one -third of the clavicle, acromion process, and spine of scapulaArtery superficial branch of transverse cervical artery or superficial cervical artery [1]Nerve accessory nerve (motor) cervical spinal nerves C3 and C4 (motor and sensation)[2]Actions
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Thorax
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet"[1] via Latin: thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.[2][3] The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain.Contents1 Structure1.1 Contents 1.2 The chest 1.3 Bones 1.4 Anatomical landmarks2 Clinical significance2.1 Injury 2.2 Pain2.2.1 Non-cardiac causes of chest pain2.3 Atelectasis 2.4 Pneumothorax3 Other animals3.1 In tetrapods 3.2 In arthropods4 Additional Images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit] In humans and other hominids, the thorax is the chest region of the body between the neck and the abdomen, along with its internal organs and other contents
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Édouard Chassaignac
Édouard-Pierre-Marie Chassaignac (24 December 1804 – 26 August 1879) was a French physician.[1][2][3] He was born in Nantes and in 1835 became prosector and professor at the university and physician at the central bureau of the hospitals of Paris. He originated the surgical operation known as écrasement, by means of which tumors, piles, polypi, and other growths may be removed without the effusion of blood. The general introduction of drainage in surgery is also due to his initiative. He introduced the use of drainage tubes into surgery. Written works[edit] He wrote Traité de l'écrasement linéaire (1856); Leçons sur la trachéométrie (1855); Clinique chirurgicale (1854–58); Traité pratique de la suppuration et du drainage chirurgical (two volumes, 1859)
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Carotid Artery
Carotid artery may refer to:Common carotid artery, often "carotids" or "carotid", an artery on each side of the neck which divides into the external carotid artery and internal carotid artery External carotid artery, an artery on each side of the head and neck supplying blood to the face, scalp, skull, neck and meninges Internal carotid artery, an artery on each side of the head and neck supplying blood to the brainThis article includes a list of related items that share the same name (or similar names). If an internal link incorrectly led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Embryonic Development
Embryogenesis
Embryogenesis
is the process by which the embryo forms and develops. In mammals, the term refers chiefly to early stages of prenatal development, whereas the terms fetus and fetal development describe later stages. Embryogenesis
Embryogenesis
starts with the fertilization of the egg cell (ovum) by a sperm cell, (spermatozoon). Once fertilized, the ovum is referred to as a zygote, a single diploid cell
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Inferior Cervical Ganglion
The inferior cervical ganglion is situated between the base of the transverse process of the last cervical vertebra and the neck of the first rib, on the medial side of the costocervical artery. Its form is irregular; it is larger in size than the middle cervical ganglion, and is frequently fused with the first thoracic ganglion, under which circumstances it is then called the "stellate ganglion."Contents1 Structure 2 Branches2.1 Development3 Additional images 4 See also 5 External linksStructure[edit] It is connected to the middle cervical ganglion by two or more cords, one of which forms a loop around the subclavian artery and supplies offsets to it. This loop is named the ansa subclavia (Vieussenii). The ganglion sends gray rami communicantes to the seventh and eighth cervical nerves. Branches[edit] The inferior cervical ganglion gives off two branches:The Inferior cardiac nerve offsets to bloodvessels form plexuses on the subclavian artery and its branches
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Amniotes
Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb"[1]) are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals. Amniotes lay their eggs on land or retain the fertilized egg within the mother, and are distinguished from the anamniotes (fishes and amphibians), which typically lay their eggs in water. Older sources, particularly prior to the 20th century, may refer to amniotes as "higher vertebrates" and anamniotes as "lower vertebrates", based on the discredited idea of the great chain of being. Amniotes are tetrapods (descendants of four-limbed and backboned animals) that are characterised by having an egg equipped with an amnion, an adaptation to lay eggs on land rather than in water as the anamniotes (including frogs) typically do
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Brachial Plexus
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1). This plexus extends from the spinal cord, through the cervicoaxillary canal in the neck, over the first rib, and into the armpit. It supplies afferent and efferent nerve fibers to the chest, shoulder, arm and hand.Contents1 Structure1.1 Roots 1.2 Trunks 1.3 Divisions 1.4 Cords 1.5 Branches 1.6 Diagram 1.7 Specific branches2 Function 3 Clinical significance3.1 Injury3.1.1 Definition 3.1.2 Motorcycle accidents 3.1.3 Sports Injuries 3.1.4 Penetrating wounds 3.1.5 Injuries during birth3.2 Tumors 3.3 Imaging 3.4 In anaesthetics4 Additional images 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External linksStructure[edit] The brachial plexus is divided into five roots, three trunks, six divisions, three anterior and three posterior, three cords, and five branches
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Saurischia
Saurischia
Saurischia
(/sɔːˈrɪskiə/ saw-RIS-kee-ə, meaning "reptile-hipped" from the Greek sauros (σαῦρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ἴσχιον) meaning 'hip joint')[1] is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia). In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders, based on their hip structure,[2] though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia
Saurischia
as an unranked clade rather than an order.[3] Description[edit] All carnivorous dinosaurs (certain types of theropods) are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs. At the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period, all saurischians except the birds became extinct in the course of the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event
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Anaesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness
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Cervical Plexus
The cervical plexus is a plexus of the anterior rami of the first four cervical spinal nerves which arise from C1 to C4 cervical segment in the neck. They are located laterally to the transverse processes between prevertebral muscles from the medial side and vertebral (m. scalenus, m. levator scapulae, m. splenius cervicis) from lateral side. There is anastomosis with accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve and sympathetic trunk. It is located in the neck, deep to sternocleidomastoid m. Nerves formed from the cervical plexus innervate the back of the head, as well as some neck muscles. The branches of the cervical plexus emerge from the posterior triangle at the nerve point, a point which lies midway on the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
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